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REDUCTION OF A SIMPLE DISTRIBUTED LOADING

Today’s Objectives:
Students will be able to determine
an equivalent force for a distributed
load.
In-Class Activities:
• Check Homework
• Applications
• Equivalent Force

= • Group Problem Solving

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.
APPLICATIONS

There is a bundle (called a bunk) of 50 mm x 100


mm boards stored on a storage rack. This lumber
places a distributed load (due to the weight of the
wood) on the beams holding the bunk.

To analyze the load’s effect on the steel beams, it is


often helpful to reduce this distributed load to a single
force. How would you do this?

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.
APPLICATIONS
(continued)
The uniform wind
pressure is acting on a
triangular sign (shown in
light brown).

To be able to design the joint


between the sign and the sign
post, we need to determine a
single equivalent resultant
force and its location.

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.
DISTRIBUTED LOADING
In many situations, a surface
area of a body is subjected to a
distributed load. Such forces are
caused by winds, fluids, or the
weight of items on the body’s
surface.

We will analyze the most common


case of a distributed pressure
loading. This is a uniform load
along one axis of a flat rectangular
body.

In such cases, w is a function of


x and has units of force per
length.
Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.
MAGNITUDE OF RESULTANT FORCE

Consider an element of length dx.


The force magnitude dF acting on it
is given as
dF = w(x) dx

The net force on the beam is given


by
+  FR = L dF = L w(x) dx = A
Here A is the area under the loading
curve w(x).

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.
LOCATION OF THE RESULTANT FORCE

The force dF will produce a moment of


(x)(dF) about point O.

The total moment about point O is


given as

+ MRO = L x dF = L x w(x) dx

Assuming that FR acts at , it will


produce the moment about point O as

+ MRO = ( ) (FR) = L w(x) dx

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.
LOCATION OF THE RESULTANT FORCE (continued)

Comparing the last two equations,


we get

You will learn more detail later, but


FR acts through a point “C,” which is
called the geometric center or
centroid of the area under the
loading curve w(x).

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.
EXAMPLES
Until you learn more about centroids, we will consider only
rectangular and triangular loading diagrams.

Finding the area of a rectangle and its centroid is easy!


Note that triangle presents a bit of a challenge but still is
pretty straightforward.

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.
EXAMPLES
Now let’s complete the calculations to find the concentrated
loads (which is a common name for the resultant of the
distributed load).

The rectangular load: FR = 10  5 = 50 kN and x = 2.5 m.

The triangular loading: –


FR = (0.5) (600) (6) = 1,800 N and x = 6 – (1/3) 6 = 4 m.
Please note that the centroid of a right triangle is at a distance
one third the width of the triangle as measured from its
base. Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING

Given: The loading on the


beam as shown.
Find: The equivalent force
and its location
from point A.
Plan:

1) The distributed loading can be divided into three parts. (one


rectangular loading and two triangular loadings).
2) Find FR and its location for each of these three distributed
loads.
3) Determine the overall FR of the three point loadings and its
location.
Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)
For the left triangular loading of
height 800 N/m and width 12 m,

FR1 = (0.5) 800 Χ 12 = 4800 N

x1 = (2/3) (12) = 8 m from A

For the top right triangular loading of height 300 N/m and width 9 m,
FR2 = (0.5) (300) (9) = 1350 N

and its line of action is at x2 = (1/3) (9)+12 = 15 m from A


For the rectangular loading of height 500 N/m and width 9 m,
FR3 = (500) (9) = 4500 N

and its line of action is at x3 = (1/2) (9)+12 = 16.5 m from A

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)
1350 N
15 m
4800 N 4500 N
16.5 m
8m

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.
Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.