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Agricultural Revolution

Industrial Revolution
Green Revolution

Dr. Aminul Islam Akanda


Agricultural revolution
• What is agricultural revolution?
• Why did agricultural revolution
appear in England?
• Impact of agricultural revolution in
England?
• What are the effect of agricultural
revolution?
• Changes in 16th and 18th century farming as
Agricultural revolution
– Common land went to farmers and they got a
piece of land
– Introducing Seed driller and Horse-drawn
cultivator (1700), Cast-iron plow (1797) and
Reaper (1799)
– Start practice of crop rotation & use of manure
(around 1700)
– Scientific breeding of animals (1725-1795) like
selective breeding of animals
• Results of this new technique in England
– 1700: 80% of population engaged in farming
1800: 40% of population farmed AND produced
a lot more.
– Yields improved 300% during 1700-1850
– AND Technology expanded over the world!!!
• Population growth – Households
Agricultural Revolution

income raised more than subsistence


Global Impact:

• Decline in food cost – More


production
• Higher labor supply- More labor
force but needed less in farming
• Greater discretionary spending -
increased demand for consumer goods
• When and why did industrial revolution
Industrial revolution
start?
• Why did industrial revolution take place in
England?
• What were the factors influencing the
progress of industrial revolution?
• What was the development among countries?
• What are outcomes of industrial revolution
in creation of working environment?
• What were the negative impacts of industrial
revolution?
• This is a phase of changing work and
Industrial Revolution
workers, 1733-1900
• During IR, the manufacturing process
shifted from small-scale production by
hand at home to large-scale production
by machine setting in the factory.
• Began in England then spread to the
Europe and the United States
• In 1860, Britain produced 20% of the
entire world’s output of industrial goods
• Really got going in America after the Civil
War (1860s +)
• Britain possessed good natural resources
IR: Why in Britain
and, with development of city road and
better transportation
• Entrepreneurial Culture of the British
• Coal mining developed in Britain which
was possible by using steam powered
pumps (innovated in Britain) in mining.
• Need for clothing development for trade—
Invention of Flying shuttle (1733); Mule
(1762); Waterframe (1785) in Britain.
• Colonial Empire - raw materials easily
accessible
• Use of new basic materials, chiefly iron and
IR: How it occurred
steel for factory
• Invention of new machines for cotton
industry, such as spinning jenny, power
loom, etc.
• Use of new energy sources such as coal,
steam engine, electricity, etc.
• Development of transportation including
railways, steamship, canals, automobile,
etc.
• Increasing application of science to industry
from the innovations of light bulb, radio,
telephone, etc.
• The factory system entailed increased
division of labor and their specialization that
increased productivity.
Cotton Industry development
• Looms in the Textile factory increased
from 2,400 in 1813 to 224,000 in 1850
with one million workers in Britain.
• New innovations changed the nature of
the industry
• Flying shuttle
• Cotton jenny
• Water frame
• Cotton Gin
– Processed 8 million pounds raw
cotton in 1770s to 250 million pounds
in 1830 in Britain
– Needed cotton to import
Machines used for
cotton industry
• James Watt’s Steam Engine (1790’s)
New Energy (seam engine)
• Steam engine was used as transportation
device and used to run entire factories.
Coal Mining development
New Energy (Coal)
• Early mining operation
– Surface seams exhausted
– Mine shafts
• Men loosened coal
• Women/children hauled it to the shaft

• Developed mining operation


– Horse driven/steam engine driven pump
– Increased coal output dramatically from
3 million tons in 1700; 25 million tons in
1830 in England
Transportation (railroads)
• Steam engine used in transportation device.
• Railroads was built during the 1830s and
1840s in England
– Waterway could not ship enough
• Experimentation with steam driven
carriages
– 1830: Manchester to Liverpool line
– Railroad designed to move coal
– Created an increased demand for iron and
steel and a skilled labor force.
– But also moved people
» Quicker, more comfortable, cheaper
» 1835: established 750 miles of track
» 1845: 6000 miles of track sanctioned
Transportation (railroads)

• Transcontinental railroad made travel across the


countries faster, cheaper and more efficient.
Transportation (canals)
• Canals are manmade waterways
dug between 2 large bodies of
water.
• The Erie Canal was a short cut
from the Atlantic Ocean to the
Great Lakes (1817).
• The Panama Canal was a
shortcut from the Atlantic to the
Pacific (1880).
• Thomas Edison invested LIGHT BULB allowed
Scientific innovations
factories to work at night.
• Alexander Graham Bell invented TELEPHONE
Factory system
• England
– Per capita income rose 75% (1801-1851)
– Marriage age lowered
Impacts of the IR

– Social Reform movements


– Progressives government passed laws requiring
workplace safety
• Factory Act (1833)
• Ten Hour Act (1847)
• Mine Act (1842)
• USA
– Per capita income increased……
– Labor unions struggled in the 1800s for better
working conditions and they were successful.
– A series of reform came during the late 1800
and early 1900s.
– The Sixteenth Amendment allows for a
graduated income tax that means rich people
pay a higher percentage than poor people.
1750 1800 1830 1860 1880 1900 1913
Industrialization Per Capita
base
Britain 10 16 25 64 87 100 115
Impact of IR: World

Belgium 9 10 14 28 43 56 88
USA 4 9 14 21 38 69 126
France 9 9 12 20 28 39 59
Germany 8 8 9 15 25 52 85
Austria 7 7 8 11 15 23 32
Italy 8 8 8 10 12 17 26
Russia 6 6 7 8 10 15 20
China 8 6 6 4 4 3 3
India 7 6 6 3 2 1 2
Negative Impacts of IR

• Family structure changed:


– At first, the entire family, including the children,
worked in the domestic factory system, just as they
had at home.
– Later, family life became fragmented (the father
worked in the factory, the mother handled domestic
matters, the children went to school).
Development at the Cost of Workers
Negative Impacts of IR
• Higher products often at the expense of
workers. For example, the raw wool and
cotton that fed the British textile mills came
from converted from farming to sheep
raising, leaving farm workers without jobs
• Labor force was abundant who had to work
even 10 to 12 hours a day for their
subsistence
• Sheer number of human beings put pressure
on inadequate resources in cities : housing,
water, sewers, food supplies, and lighting
Negative Impacts of IR

Development at the Cost of Environment


• The chemicals and gas produced by factories are
harmful to human being’s and environment.
• The waste produced by factories continues to be
dumped into our rivers, lakes, and streams
• All these toxics are slowly killing off everything
that is important to our very survival.
Textile Automobile Oil
World Top Producers
1. China 1. Japan 1. Saudi Arabia
2. USA 2. USA 2. Russia
3. Italy 3. China 3. USA
4. Japan 4. Germany 4. Iran
5. India 5. S. Korea 5. Mexico
6. Mexico 6. France 6. China
7. Thailand 7. Brazil 7. Canada
8. Indonesia 8. Spain 8. UAE
9. Pakistan 9. Canada 9. Venezuela
10. Germany 10. India 10. Norway
• Why green revolution was necessary?
• Why did green revolution spread in Asia?
Green revolution

• What is the process of agricultural


development during green revolution?
• How did green revolution contribute to the
world food production?
• What type of competition has been created
among grains from their higher production?
• What are the consequences of competition
among grains under the changing of
consumption pattern?
• What are the negative impacts of green
revolution?
• How has agribusiness mode been changed?
• Mexico: Home of the Green
Green Revolution
Revolution
• Green Revolution usually refers to the
transformation of agriculture that began in
1945
• Norman Borlaug, the biggest contributor to
Green Revolution who joined Rockefeller
Foundation team in Mexico.
• He conducted research on development of
wheat variety for higher yield.
• 1960’s: Improved wheat varieties gave
dramatic increase in yield in Mexico
• Borlaug won Nobel Peace Prize in 1970
Wheat Seed Shipment to Asia

• 1965: 250 tons to Pakistan;


200 tons to India

• 1966: 18,000 tons to India

• 1967: 42,000 tons to Pakistan;


21,000 tons to Turkey
Development and Spread of
Rice variety
• International Rice Research Institute
(IRRI) developed a semi-dwarf rice
variety in 1966 that could produce more
rice with certain fertilizers and irrigation.
• 1970’s: Rice variety spread to millions of
farmers in Asia and third world
• 1990’s: 40% of all farms in third world
– 75% Rice farming in Asia
– 80% Wheat farming in third world
• Improved standard of living for millions
people worldwide
Green Revolution:
Changes in Factors of Production in
Developing Countries . of Asia
Adoption of
Modern Cereal
varietiesRice
Wheat Irrigation Fertilizer
19610 / 0% 0 / 0% 87 2 0.2 309
(M ha / %Tractors Prodn
1970 14 / 20% 15 / 20%106 10 0.5
area) million hamillion t millions
463
million t
1980 39 / 49% 55 / 43%129 29 2.0
618
1990 60 / 70% 85 / 65%158 54 3.4
858
2000 70 / 84% 100 / 74%175 70 4.8
962
Source: FAOSTAT, July 2002 and author’s estimated on
modern variety adoption, based on CIMMYT and IRRI
data.
WORLD GRAIN PRODUCTION
1950 650 million ton from 610 million ha
2000 1900 million ton from 660 million ha (without GR tech.
needed 1.76 billion ha)
Technology Saved Areas, 1950-2000

hectares
1,80
Million 0

1,40
0
LAND SAVED
1.1 billion ha
Rice 1,00
0
Wheat Soybn
Grain 600
LAND USED
660 million ha
Other Corn
200

197 198 199 200


1950 1960
0 0 0 0
* Uses milled rice equivalents
Source: FAO Production Yearbooks and
AGROSTAT
-- Contemporary Global Grain
Supply Demand Competition –
Rice

Wheat Soybn
Grain

Other Corn

Competition
among the crops….
No population explosion!!
Long-term world population growth, 1750 to 2150
Millions Billions Billions

100 10

80 8

Population size

Annual Increments
?!

Population size
60 6
Annual increments

40 4

20 2

0 0
2075 2100 2125 2150

Source: United Nation: Long-range World Population Projections: Based on the 1998 Revision, Executive Summary,
(http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/longrange/longrange.htm), The World at Six Billion,
(http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/sixbillion/sixbillion.htm)
F ig. 16. Evolution of world total production for rice, wheat, corn and soybeans, ’61-‘04
(Million MT)
700

600
Rice
Wheat
Competition among crops!!
Corn
500 Soybean

400

300

200

100

0
1961

1967

1971

1973

1977

1979

1983

1985
1963

1965

1969

1975

1981

1987

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

2003

2005
Source: S. Ito; World Food Statistics and Graphics (http:/ / worldfood.muses.tottori- u.ac.jp), Tottori University, J apan J une 15, 2002. (Original sources are
from ERS/ USDA; PS&D View , November 2004).
Note: Rice is milled basis.
Fig.1. Per capita consumption of rice for Japan, Taiwan,
South Korea and China during 1961 - 2004
(Kg)
Milled basis
200
Japan
T aiwan
South Korea
160 China

120

80

40

People cut rice consumption!!


1965

1967

1971

1975

1977

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999
1961

1963

1969

1973

1979

1981

1983

1985

1987

2001

2003

2005

2007
Source: S.It o,W orld Food St at ist ics & Graphics
(htt p://worldfood.muses.tot tori-u.ac.jp)
Original dat a sources: USDA:P S&D View, November 2004; USBC:Int ernat ional Data Base , July 2003.
World per capita consumption for wheat, corn and soybean,
k g/capita 1993-2013
90
Wheat Corn Soybean Rice
80

70

60

50

40
Will rice and wheat fall!!

30

20

10

0
1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013
Source : http://www.fapri.org/tools/outlook.aspx
1000m t
F ig . 2 1 W o r ld r ic e to ta l c o n su m p tio n ; 1 9 6 0 -2 0 5 0
600000

500000

400000

300000

200000 China rate China rate China rate


- 0.331% – 1.77% – 3.452% like
like Japan Taiwan
100000

0
1960

1972

1987

1999

2011

2023

2038

2050
1963
1966
1969

1975
1978
1981
1984

1990
1993
1996

2002
2005
2008

2014
2017
2020

2026
2029
2032
2035

2041
2044
2047
Weaker demand for rice
and wheat means…
• Over-supply of rice and wheat
• Decline global market prices
• Loss to producers
• End up with smaller production
• Then ??
• GR technology is Fertilizers - Irrigation
Dependency & Inequality
- Pesticides based production system
• Expensive inputs: profits go to global
companies as poor countries import:
GR Impact:

– Irrigation devices
– Fertilizers
– Pesticides
• Increased INEQUALITY
• Irrigation: Wealthy invested, got richer,
drove out poor
• Pesticide: Need gradually more
• Fertilizer: Fertilizer use increases by
huge amount
• Production: Need more inputs each
year for same production that the poor
can’t pay and got less production
• Economic power and land control went to a
Dependency & Inequality
few landowners who were bigger growers
• Benefits of GR technology went to
GR Impact:

– Middlemen as farmers to depend for selling


– Banks as farmers to invest for new technology
– Chemical companies as farmers to use
• Food flows from the poor and hungry nations
to the rich and well-fed nations
• Production increased AND more food
at same time increases inequity
• Green Revolution not sustainable
– destroys resource base like soil and
environment on which agriculture depends
Example: India and BD
India and Bangladesh
• Self-sufficient in grain
due to Green Revolution
• But 1/3 of people poor
• Poor cannot afford to
BUY enough food
Rice Wheat Potato
World Top Producers
1. China 1. China 1. China
2. India 2. India 2. Russia
3. Indonesia 3. USA 3. India
4. Bangladesh 4. Russia 4. USA
5. Vietnam 5. France 5. Ukraine
6. Thailand 6. Canada 6. Germany
7. Myanmar 7. Australia 7. Poland
8. Philippines 8. Germany 8. Belgium
9. Brazil 9. Pakistan 9. Netherlands
10. Japan 10. Turkey 10. France
Jute Tea Cotton
World Top Producers
1. India 1. China 1. China
2. Bangladesh 2. India 2. USA
3. China 3. Sri Lanka 3. India
4. Côte d'Ivoire 4. Kenya 4. Pakistan
5. Thailand 5. Turkey 5. Brazil
6. Myanmar 6. Indonesia 6. Uzbekistan
7. Brazil 7. Vietnam 7. Turkey
8. Uzbekistan 8. Japan 8. Australia
9. Nepal 9. Argentina 9. Greece
10. Vietnam 10. Bangladesh 10. Syria
Phases: Basic need-based business
Colonization Capitalistic agribusiness
Changing mode of
• Basic Need based business
– Agricultural production used to meet the basic
Agribusiness

needs of the people and industry – spices for


foods & cotton for textile
• Colonization and demand for raw materials
– Colonization’ was a peculiar phenomenon –
needed a continuous supply of raw materials at a
large level for industries.
– Large scale production seeks was possible
through mechanization and other mode of
technological innovations.
– Agriculture was replaced by the industry in two
stages; during industrial revolution, and since the
mid- twentieth century by capitalistic agribusiness.
• Capitalistic agribusiness
– Capitalistic agribusiness started to rise in the mid-
twentieth century.
Changing mode of
– Small number of industries concentrated towards
supplies of inputs and also became concentrated in
Agribusiness

food processing, distribution and retailing.


– Capitalistic mode of production tends to capture more
share of production and occupy the market through
large corporation
– US food processing firms like ConAgra, Cargill,
Tyson-foods, Goldkist, etc. occupy major share in
food distribution in the USA and also in the world.
– Four large US firms process from 57% to 76% of corn,
wheat and soybeans in USA.
– Many transnational firms started as relatively small
local firms but expanded their operations with global
integration by building new facilities, acquisitions and
mergers with other firms.