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CRITERIA FOR CONTRAST:

THE PHONEME SYSTEM


Created by: GROUP 4 CLASS: PBI 1
Ahmad Setiawan
Ainun Saskiyah
Andry Rama Kusuma
Dessy Fitriyani
MINIMAL PAIRS
The examples:
cat – bat
wide – wise
ride – road
kite – night
take - steak

A test to determine whether sounds are


contrastive or not.
PHONETIC SIMILARITY

additional criterion for allophony states that all the allophones


of a phoneme must be phonetically similar.

[h] and [ŋ], this produces an unambiguous result: both are


Example:
consonants, but there the similarity ends
DEFECTIVE
DISTRIBUTION

Phonemes are not only restricted in the


combinations of consonants they can form, but are
simply absent from some positions in the word.

For example:
[h] occurs syllable-initially
[ŋ] occurs only syllable-finally

English [h] and [ŋ] are in complementary


distribution
FREE VARIATION

There is more than one possible pronunciation


in the same word or context
depending on
circumstances and Tomahto (SBE speakers)
situations Tomayto (NA speakers)

Doesn’t require
Require complementary
complementary
distribution
distribution
NEUTRALISATION

Examples: A case where phoneme


still *sdill opposition is lost in a
skill *sgill particular environment
spill *sbill
THE
ARCHIPHONEME

The unit found in a position of neutralization is symbolised by a capital


letter, and is composed of all the properties which the neutralised
phonemes have in common, but not the properties which typically
distinguish them
TWO PROBLEMS
OF
ARCHIPHONEME

Representation like /mEri/ is three ways The archiphoneme cannot really be


ambiguous for a General American invoked:
speaker: cats, caps, chiefs, where the final
Mary, merry or marry sound of the stem is voiceless
PHONOLOGY AND
MORPHOLOGY

The part of linguistics which studies how words are made up


of meaningful units, like stems and suffixes, although the
overlap between the two areas, commonly known as
morphophonemics
RULES AND CONSTRAINTS

Phonologists working in Optimality Theory express all


phonological generalisations using constraints

ASPIRATION: Voiceless stops are aspirated syllable-initially


Examples:
*s [b d ɡ] There are no sequences of [s] plus a voiced stop
THE PHONEME SYSTEM

The introduction of features reveals phonemes, not as the


ultimate, smallest unit of the phonology, but as cover-
symbols for a range of properties.
THANKS