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Agenda

Transition from 2G to 3G Module 1


Why 3G ?
3G Standard
3G Fundamentals
3G Networks
3G Applications

History Module 2
Why UMTS ?
Features
Technology
4G
Conclusion
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1 From 2G to 3G
1.1 2G Limitations / 3G Requirements

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1.1 2G Limitations / 3G Requirements
What Are the 2G Limitations?

2G limitations Rate 9.6 Kbps

SMS

Waste of radio resource (before GPRS)

Not adapted for new services such as video streaming

Large number of 2G systems => lack of Compatibility

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1.1 2G Limitations / 3G Requirements

What Are the 3G Requirements?

3G requirements High speed

144-384kbps: full coverage and mobility


2 Mbps: limited coverage and mobility

Better spectrum efficiency

Worldwide roaming

Single system for…


… the following environments:
cellular office
satellite residential

Flexibility to introduce new services

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1.2 2G-to-3G Evolution
Evolution of the Radio Access Network: 2G RAN

2G RAN
FDMA + TDMA

R’97/98/99 (GSM) R’99 (GSM) R5 (3GPP)


BSS GSM BSS EDGE GERAN EDGE
Up to 160kbps Up to 384kbps Up to 384kbps
Internet services Internet services Multimedia
VoIP

GPRS E-GPRS EDGE

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1.2 2G-to-3G Evolution
Evolution of the Radio Access Network: 3G RAN

3G RAN

W-CDMA
R99’/R3/R4 (3GPP)
UTRAN UMTS R5 (3GPP)
Up to 384kbps
Multimedia UTRAN 3G/HSDPA R6 (3GPP)
AMR voice Up to 10Mbps DL
Multimedia UTRAN 3G/HSUPA R7 (3GPP)
AMR voice then VoIP Typical: 2Mbps UL
Multimedia UTRAN 3G/HSPA+
UMTS
VoIP Up to 11 Mb/s (UL)
HSDPA and 42 Mb/s (DL)
Modulation (64 QAM

HSUPA DL and 16 QAM UL)


MIMO
Dual cells HSPA

HSPA+

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1.2 2G-to-3G Evolution
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

CS

VMS
GMSC PSTN
/VLR

HLR

iGGSN
SGSN GPRS
PDN
Bakbone

PS

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1.2 2G-to-3G Evolution
Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)

New radio modulation 8PSK Constellation diagram


(0,1,0)
(0,0,0) (0,1,1)

Up to 384kbps (0,0,1) (1,1,1)

(1,0,1)
(1,1,0)
(1,0,0)

Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution

2.5G 2 generations 3G

E-GPRS GERAN

Evolution of GSM radio part Insertion in UMTS solutions

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1.2 2G-to-3G Evolution
GSM EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN)

GSM

BSC
Iu
EDGE
UMTS
GSM
Core Network
(All IP)

EDGE

GSM Iu
BSC

EDGE

GSM

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1 From 2G to 3G
1.3 IMT-2000

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1. IMT-2000
3G Standardization Bodies

 Members: ETSI (Europe), T1 (USA), TTA (Korea),


ARIB/TTC (Japan), CWTS (PRC)
 Goal: Global specifications for UMTS networks

 Members: TIA (USA), TTA (Korea), ARIB/TTC


(Japan), CWTS (PRC)
 Goal: Global specifications for CDMA2000 networks

3G.IP  Members: AT&T Wireless (USA), BT (UK), Omnitel


(Italy), etc.
 Goal: Specifications of an all-IP core network
standard

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UMTS Modes

5-MHz channel

UMTS FDD mode f1 Uplink

Code and frequency


orthogonality
f2

Downlink

5-MHz channel

UMTS TDD mode


.. . Uplink & Downlink .. . 15 TSs

Code and time


orthogonality

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1 From 2G to 3G
1.4 3GPP

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1.4 3GPP
Radio Access Ranges

Zone 4: Global

Zone 3: Suburban

Zone 2: Urban

Zone 1:
In-Building

MSS
EDGE UMTS/FDD UMTS/TDD
or
HSDPA/
HSUPA

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2 Services and Applications
2.1 User Equipment

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2.1 User Equipment
Description

User Equipment (UE)


Mobile UICC
CU
Equipment
(ME) USIM 1
UMTS NodeB

USIM 2
GSM access

UMTS
SIM

GSM BTS

UICC: UMTS Integrated Circuit Card GSM


TS 21.111:USIM and IC card requirements
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2.1 User Equipment
Some Characteristics

Radio technology FDD or TDD


Frequency band 2100, 1900MHz
Power class 1 to 4 (radio transmission 1 2 3 4
power) Power class
Supported 2W 0.5W 0.25W 0.126W
classmarks 1 to 4 (GSM and/or UMTS)
Transmission rate
32kbps to 2048kbps
class
Location no, A-GPS

TYPE 1 No measurement on other network Manual Switch

TYPE 2 Measurements on other network Automatic switch


Supported classmark
TYPE 3 Plus simultaneous reception Rx on GSM and UMTS

TYPE 4 Plus simultaneous transmission Tx and Rx on GSM and UMTS

Down 32kbps 64kbps 128kbps 384kbps 768kbps 2048kbps


Transmission
rate class
Up 32kbps 64kbps 128kbps 384kbps 768kbps

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2 Services and Applications
2.2 Types of Services

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2.2 Types of Services
QoS Classes

Traffic Class

+ conversational  AMR speech service


 Video telephony (IETF
-
multimedia architecture)
CS: H.324
PS: H.323
Delay Data

sensitive Integrity
streaming Video on demand sensitive

- interactive Location-based services


Computer games
+
background E-mail delivery
SMS
Etc.

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2.2 Types of Services
Bearer Services and Teleservices

UMTS PLMN

E.g. speech,
file transfer,
emails
UE UTRAN CN Node CN Gateway server

conversational
Teleservice
streaming
interactive UMTS
Bearer Service
background
Radio Access CN
Bearer Service (RAB) Bearer Service External
Radio Iu Bearer
E.g. data transfer at Bearer Service Bearer Service Service
Backbone
9.6 kbps, in
Radio Physical Physical Bearer Service
Transparent mode,
with turbocode Bearer Service Bearer Service
Uu Iu

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2.2 Types of Services
Typical Rates Applied to Services
Downloading a Map (50KB) A 2.5-Minutes
(2.4MP3
MB) Music File

GSM 42s GSM 34mn


GPRS 6s GPRS 5mn
EDGE 1s EDGE 1mn
UMTS 0.2s UMTS 10s

Downloading a Word
(500 KB) Document Audio and Video Streaming

GSM 7mn Streaming


GPRS 1mn only with
EDGE 10s 3G technologies
UMTS 2s

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2 Services and Applications
2.3 Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS)

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2.3 Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS)
Unicast and Broadcast Modes

SGSN SGSN

SGSN SGSN

Core Network Core Network


SGSN
SGSN

Unicast Broadcast

Data is sent as many times Data is sent only


as there are users in the once within network
network
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2 Services and Applications
2.4 VHE Concept

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2.4 VHE Concept
Description of the Virtual Home Environment (VHE)

personal service environment

Home PLMN
My screen
My Home page
My buttons
My diary
My everything

stored in the Network

"same look and feel"


PLMN 2

Independent of terminal

PLMN 3

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3 UMTS Architecture

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3.1 UTRAN
The UTRAN in the UMTS Architecture

Uu PSTN
UMTS PLMN

Core
Network
UTRAN
Iu

UE IP
Network

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3.1 UTRAN
Functions

Radio resource management and control

Mobility procedures

UTRAN functions Transfer of data, ciphering / deciphering

Overall system access control

Broadcast / Multicast

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3.1 UTRAN
Architecture

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3 UMTS Architecture
3.2 Core Network

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3.2 Core Network
Functions

Management of user location information

Control of network features and services

Core Network functions Communication with RANs and other CNs

Transfer mechanisms (switching


for signaling and userand transmission)
data

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3.2 Core Network
3GPP R'99/R3 Architecture

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3.2 Core Network
3GPP R4 Architecture

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3.2 Core Network
3GPP R5 Architecture

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3.2 Core Network
3GPP R5 Architecture: Where Is the UTRAN in IMS?

MGCP
MGCP UC Server
Hardphone

RGC SRP
MGC
PSTN
MRF
HSS
HLR
E10
MGC
OmniPCX
BTS E10 CSC
MSC
PLMN SRP
Node B
P-CSCF
MG P-CSCF
SIP
A5020 IWF+ EGK
IMS GGSN

H.323
NAT – H.323 ALG
H.323 UTRAN + PS domain
SIP
NAT – SIP ALG

DSLAM
OmniPCX OXO
Company
Company IP Tunnel BRAS

Company UE 2

IMR terminal
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4 UMTS Basic Principles
4.1 CDMA Principles

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4.1 CDMA Principles
Multiple Access Technique

TDMA FDMA CDMA

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4.1 CDMA Principles
CDMA Characteristics

1 frequency on all the cells, so the The entire bandwidth is used by each
entire bandwidth is used in each cell: user at the same time:
 Inter-cell interference.  Intra-cell interference.
 Cell orthogonality is achieved by  User orthogonality is achieved by
codes. codes.

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4.1 CDMA Principles
CDMA Modes

5-MHz channel

FDD mode f1 Uplink

Code and frequency


orthogonality
f2

Downlink

5-MHz channel

TDD mode
.. . Uplink & Downlink .. . 15 TSs

Code and time


orthogonality

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4.1 CDMA Principles
CDMA Frequency Range

FDD mode Wide CDMA paired bands (2 x 60MHz)

TDD mode TD/CDMA (Time Division) unpaired bands (35MHz)

TDD FDD UL MSS UL TDD


1900 1920 1980 2010 2025

FDD DL MSS DL
2110 2170 2200

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2 Network Protocols
2.1 Protocols in UTRAN

The Iu protocols
Used to exchange data (traffic
Core Network and signaling) between RNCs,
Node Bs and the Core Network.

Iu
Iu Protocols
The Radio protocols
RNC RNC Used to process the data sent
on the air and for the signaling
Iur between UTRAN and the UEs
Iub

Radio Protocols NAS Signaling


Signaling between a UE and
Node B the Core Network.
Typically, the Authentification
and the Location
Uu Interface

NAS Signaling
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4 Radio Channels
4.3 Radio Channels, Protocols & Network Elements
Control User
Plane Plane
NAS Voice Web SMS Cell
Signaling Browsing Broadcast

RRC …
PDCP BMC
RRC
Sig. Radio
Bearers
MAC
RLC Physical Channels
Control Traffic Transport
Logical Ch. Logical Ch. Channels
MAC Uu Interface

Transport Physical Layer Physical Layer


… Channels

RNC Node B UE

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3 Protocol Stacks
3.2 General model
The same general protocol model is applied for all Iu interfaces:
Radio Network Transport User Plane
Control Plane Network
Control Plane

dio Data
twork Application
Stream(s)
yer Protocol

Transport Network Transport Network Transport Network


User Plane Control Plane User Plane

ALCAP

nsport Signaling Signaling Data


er Bearer(s) Bearer(s) Bearer(s)

Physical Layer

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3 Protocol Stacks
3.3 Iub Protocol Stacks

Radio Network Transport User Plane


Control Plane Network
Control Plane

adio Node B
etwork Application Part Iub FP
ayer (NBAP)

ALCAP
Q.2630.2

Q.2150.2

ansport SSCF-UNI SSCF-UNI


ayer
SSCOP SCTP SSCOP UDP

AAL5 IP AAL5 AAL2 IP

ATM Data Link Layer ATM ATM Data Link Layer

Physical Layer

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3 Protocol Stacks
3.5 Iur Protocol Stacks

Control Plane User Plane


adio
etwork
RNSAP Iu-R Data Stream(s)
ayer

Transport Network Transport Network Transport Network


User Plane Control Plane User Plane
Q.2630.2
SCCP

MTP3-3 M3UA Q.2150.1


MTP3-B
SSCF-NNI
ansport SCTP
SSCF-NNI
etwork SSCOP UDP
ayer SSCOP AAL2
AAL5 IP IP
AAL5

ATM Ethernet ATM ATM Ethernet

Physical Layer Physical Layer Physical Layer

Unchanged or refused New or modified

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3 Protocol Stacks
3.6 Iu-PS Protocol Stacks

Control Plane User Plane


adio
etwork
RANAP Iu UP Protocol Layer
ayer

Transport Network Transport Network Transport Network


User Plane Control Plane User Plane

SCCP

MTP3-B M3UA M3UA GTP-U GTP-U


SSCF-NNI SCTP UDP
ansport SCTP UDP
SSCOP IP IP
etwork
ayer AAL5 IP AAL5 IP

ATM Ethernet ATM Ethernet

Physical Layer Physical Layer

Unchanged or refused New or modified Not support

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3 Protocol Stacks
3.7 Iu-CS Protocol Stacks

Control Plane User Plane


adio
etwork
RANAP Iu UP Protocol Layer
ayer

Transport Network Transport Network Transport Network


User Plane Control Plane User Plane
Q.2630.2
SCCP

MTP3-3 M3UA Q.2150.1


RTP/
MTP3-B RTCP
SSCF-NNI
ansport SCTP
SSCF-NNI AAL2
etwork SSCOP UDP
ayer SSCOP
AAL5 IP IP
AAL5

ATM Ethernet ATM ATM Ethernet

Physical Layer Physical Layer Physical Layer

Unchanged or refused New or modified

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4 Radio Channels
4.3 Radio Channels, Protocols & Network Elements
Control User
Plane Plane
NAS Voice Web SMS Cell
Signaling Browsing Broadcast

RRC …
PDCP BMC
RRC
Sig. Radio
Bearers
MAC
RLC Physical Channels
Control Traffic Transport
Logical Ch. Logical Ch. Channels
MAC Uu Interface

Transport Physical Layer Physical Layer


… Channels

RNC Node B UE

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Radio Channels
Downlink
DTCH, DCCH MTCH MSCH, MCCH CCCH PCCH BCCH

Logical Ch
Transport Ch
DCH1 DCH2 FACH PCH BCH

CCTrCH

Physical Ch
DPDCH
DPDCH and DPCCH + S-CCPCH P-CCPCH
multiplexed by time DPCCH
Dedicated Common Physical Ch
Physical Ch

Not associated with


AICH PICH MICH CPICH P-SCH S-SCH
transport channels

MSCH, MCCH, MTCH map to FACH (only in DL)


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Radio Channels
Uplink

DTCH, DCCH CCCH

Logical Ch
Transport Ch
DCH1 DCH2 RACH

CCTrCH

Physical Ch

DPDCH and DPCCH DPDCH PRACH


multiplexed by +
modulation DPCCH

Dedicated Physical Ch Common Physical Ch

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4 Radio Channels
Logical Channels

UL or What type of information?


DL
BCCH System control information
e.g cell identity, uplink interference level
PCCH Paging information
e.g CN originated call when the network does not know the location
cell of the UE
CCCH Control information
e.g initial access (RRC connection request), cell update
DCCH Control information
(but the UE must have an RRC connection)
MCCH Carries control plane information between network and UEs

MSCH Carries transmission schedule between network and UEs

DTCH Traffic information dedicated to one UE e.g speech, fax, web browsing

CTCH Traffic information to all or a group of UEs e.g SMS-Cell Broadcast

MTCH Carries user plane traffic

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4 Radio Channels
Structure of a Transport Channel

Transport Block: basic Transport Format (TF): it may be changed every TTI. Each
unit exchanged over TF must belong to the Transport Format Set (TFS) of the
transport channels. transport channel

168

168 bits 168 168 168

168 168 168 168


20 ms 20 ms 20 ms 20 ms

Time Transmission
Interval (TTI): periodicity >> The system delivers one Transport Block Set to the
at which a Transport Block physical layer every TTI: what is the delivery bit rate of the
Set is transferred by the transport blocks to the physical layer during the first TTI?
physical layer on the radio
interface

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Radio Channels
Physical Channel List

Not associated with transport channels


CPICH: Common Pilot Channel
PICH: Page Indicator Channel
MICH: MBMS Indication Channel
P-SCH & S-SCH: Primary & Secondary Synchronization Channel
AICH: Acquisition Indicator Channel

Dedicated Physical Channels, associated with transport channels


DPDCH: Dedicated Physical Data Channel
DPCCH: Dedicated Physical Control Channel

Common Physical Channels, associated with transport channels


P-CCPCH & S-CCPCH: Primary & Secondary Common Control Channel
PRACH: Physical Random Access Channel
PDSCH: Physical Downlink Shared Channel
PCPCH: Physical Common Packet Channel

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8 Coverage, Capacity & Quality
8.3 Typical Values

Quality: The quality is measured with the Block Error Ratio (BLER). Here some example according
different services.

AMR CS6 PS64 PS1 PS3 DCCH


4 28 84
Target 0.001 0.01 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
BLER

Coverage:
Dense Urban Cell: about 300 meters
SubUrban Cell: about 1 km
Rural Cell: 3 km

Capacity:
The main limitation is the interference level due to the WCDMA technology.
But the system is also limited by capacity processing of the Node B and the RNC, by the codes, and by
the transmission capacity.

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3.2 RRC Connection
3.2.2 Procedure: RRC Connection Establishment

UE Node-B RNC

1. RRC Connection Request (CCCH:RACH)


RRC RRC
Initial UE identity, Establishment cause, Initial UE capability

2. Allocate RNTI, Select Level


1 and Level 2 parameters
(e.g. TFCS, scrambling code)

3. Radio Link Establishment

4. RRC Connection Setup (CCCH:FACH)


RRC RRC
Initial UE identity, RNTI, capability update requirement, TFS, TFCS, frequency, UL
scrambling code, power control info

5. RRC Connection Setup Complete (DCCH:RACH or DCH)


RRC RRC
Integrity information, ciphering information

>> Can the UE send user information (e.g voice call) after completing this stage?

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3.2 RRC Connection
3.2.3 Procedure: RRC Connection: RRC Connection Release

UE Node-B Node-B DRNC SRNC CN


(DRNC) (SRNC) 1. Iu Release
Command
RANAP RANAP
Cause
2. Iu Release
Complete
RANAP RANAP
-

3. ALCAP Iu Bearer Release

4. RRC Connection Release (DCCH:DCH )


RRC RRC
Cause

5. RRC Connection Release Complete (DCCH:DCH )


RRC RRC
-
6. Radio Link Deletion

7. Radio Link Deletion

8. Radio Link Deletion

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MA · TMO18245 9300 WCDMA UAO7 UMTS Overview
4.1 CDMA Principles
UMTS 900/850MHz

More coverage
Better indoor penetration

 Site count reduction


 Better in-building penetration gain

 GSM site reuse

64 CSD  900 MHz


64 CSD2 GHz

 Our R&D Driver of UMTS 900Hz Specifications at 3GPP


 UMTS/HSDPA + 900/850MHz = Winning Combination

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4.1 CDMA Principles
HSDPA: What For?

HSDPA Standardized by 3GPP R5


HSDPA is designed to:
 Increase the Downlink data throughput over the air interface (theoretical peak user
bit rate = 14.4Mbps).
 Provide instantaneous high data rates in the PS domain (e.g., Internet browsing,
video on demand) and manage Non-Real Time applications (Streaming, interactive
and background class)
HSDPA could be deployed in both FDD and TDD modes.

DL

UL

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Theoretical Download Peak User Data Rates

21.6M

14.4M

3.6M
2.4M 3.1M
2M
0.31 M 0.38 M

UE Category 14
UE Category 10
1xRTT

UE Category 6
1xEV-DV
1xEV-DO
W-CDMA
EGPRS

HSDPA

HSDPA
HSDPA
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2 HSDPA Key Features

2.2 HSDPA: Better Use of Resources

Dedicated Channel

Dedicated Channel

Dedicated Channel

Shared Channel

A shared channel is much more efficient


than a dedicated channel to carry bursty packet traffic.

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HSDPA Solution Main Facts

Factors of HSDPA Performances

User Equipment Infrastructure


Capabilities Performances

HSDPA
Throughput

Radio Traffic Load


Conditions in the cell

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HSDPA Key Features

HSDPA Main Concepts & Benefits


HSDPA
No Fast Power Control (100% of available power used) Higher User
No Variable Spreading (SF = 16) Data Rates
No Soft Handover (for DL user data channel) Lower Service
Response Time
Higher Packet
Time & Code Multiplexing of User Data (Shared Channel) Data Capacity
Adaptive Modulation & Coding (Rate Adaptation)
Fast Retransmission / Scheduling Layer in NodeB Better Services
Short Radio Framing (2ms) Availability

- resource allocation
- fast retransmission

Better End-User Perceived Quality


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HSUPA: What For?

HSUPA Standardized by 3GPP R6


HSUPA standardized by 3GPP R6 is designed to increase the Uplink data throughput over
the air interface (theoretical peak user bit rate = 2Mbps).

Uplink

High
Throughputs 3GPP Release 6

Cat. 6 UE: 5.7 Mbps UL


Dedicated
Channels

Cat. 5 UE: 2 Mbps UL


Throughput
& R99 = 384 kbps UL
Capacity

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2 HSUPA Principles

2.2 Radio Resource Allocation


Dedicated Channel

Dedicated Channel

Dedicated Channel

Shared Channel

Enhanced Dedicated Channel

Enhanced Dedicated Channel

Enhanced Dedicated Channel

Allocated resources
User traffic

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UMTS Overview · UMTS Overview
MA · TMO18245 9300 WCDMA UAO7 UMTS Overview
1 Hybrid Automatic Repeat Query Principles

1.1 Fast Retransmission with Hybrid-ARQ

The erroneous
block
is deleted!
Serving UE
RNC

Combining
Rx packets
The erroneous block
is stored for
recombination!
Serving Node-B UE
RNC

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MA · TMO18245 9300 WCDMA UAO7 UMTS Overview
4.1 CDMA Principles
HSPA+ is Evolution for HsxPA

Software Upgrade
Installation (Dual Cells + MIMO) 64-QAM

HSDPA+
84 Mb/s
HSDPA+
Downlink 42 Mb/s
Throughput GERAN
1 Mb/s
HSDPA
14.4 Mb/s
UMTS
384 Kb/s
EDGE
300 Kb/s
New UE categories EDGE
13 and 14 (64-QAM only) GPRS 240 Kb/s
80 Kb/s Years
17 and 18 (64-QAM or MIMO)
2001 2006 2007-2008 2009

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4 UMTS Basic Principles
4.2 Radio Resources: Frequency, Time, Power/Code

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3 Spread Spectrum Modulation
3.1 A Code as a Shell against Noise

Noise
A A
Spreading Radio Channel Despreading

A A
Transmitter Receiver

The letter ‘A’ represents the signal to transmit over the radio interface.

At the transmitter the height (ie the power) of ‘A’ is spread, while a color
(i.e a code) is added to ‘A’ to identify the message .

At the receiver ‘A’ can be retrieved with knowledge of the code, even if
the power of the received signal is below the power of noise due to the
radio channel.

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3 Spread Spectrum Modulation
3.2 Spectrum spreading

???
Interference Level
P P Radio channel
P P

f Spreading f f Despreading f

At the transmitter the signal is multiplied by a code which spreads the


signal over a wide bandwidth while decreasing the power (per unit of
spectrum).
At the receiver it is possible to retrieve the wanted signal by multiplying
the received signal by the same code: you get a peak of correlation,
while the noise level due to the radio channel remains the same, because
this is not correlated with the code.
But the interference level is too high, it is not possible to decode any
message.

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4 Code Division Multiple Access
4.4 Channelization Codes (Spreading Codes)

C ch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1)

C ch,2,0 = (1,1)

C ch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1)
The code tree is shared by several
C ch,1,0 = (1) users (usually one code tree per
C ch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1) cell)
C ch,2,1 = (1,-1)

C ch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1)

SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4 SF = 8

The channelization codes are OVSF (Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor)


codes:
their length is equal to the spreading factor of the signal: they can
match variable bit rates on a frame-by-frame basis.
orthogonality enables to separate physical channels:
UL: separation of physical channels from the same terminal
DL: separation of physical channels to different users within one cell

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4 Code Division Multiple Access
4.5 Scrambling codes

The scrambling codes provide separation between equipment:


UL: separation of terminals
No need for code planning (millions of codes!)
There are 224 long and 224 short scrambling codes in uplink

DL: separation of cells


Need for code planning between cells (but trivial task)
There are only long scrambling codes in downlink
(512 to limit the code identification during cell search procedure)

The long scrambling codes are truncated to the 10 ms frame length.

Only one DL scrambling code should be used within a cell.


Another scrambling code may be introduced in one cell if necessary
(example : shortage of channelization code), but orthogonality between
users will be degraded.

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3 Spread Spectrum Modulation
3.3 Code & Spreading factor

The code is applied on each bit of the user data.


The Spreading Factor, called SF, is the length of this code. Chip rate fixed at 3.84 Mchip/s
Example: Data to transmit: 1 0 , SF=8.

A chip

1
Spread data
-1

Transmission
1
Code
-1

1
Coded data
-1

Received data, 1
without error -1

Reception
Code applied 1
-1

1
-1

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4.2 Radio Resources: Frequency, Time, Power/Code
Definition

Channelization Code Scrambling Code

Channelization code example:


Spreading factor = 4 - CATS EAT MICE
n Chips
UE1 0 A T
- 2 Scrambling
0011
0
1 n Chips
UE2
SAME E-TACTIC
Power
1011
0010
1 Power
Sbit
1010 1 Spreading
SIR
N0
N0
Schip

f
f Spread Signal S’
S

S: Signal Level N: Noise Level


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UMTS Overview · UMTS Overview
MA · TMO18245 9300 WCDMA UAO7 UMTS Overview
4.2 Radio Resources: Frequency, Time, Power/Code
Multiple Access

Channelization: Bit chips Scrambling Mixed chips modulation

UE1

A Node B

UE2

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4.2 Radio Resources: Frequency, Time, Power/Code
FDD and TDD Modes Characteristics
FDD TDD
Multiple access scheme Direct-Sequence CDMA TDMA with CDMA in time slots
Duplex scheme Frequency division Time division
Frequency bands UL: 1920-1980MHz UL: 190-1920MHz
DL: 2110-2170MHz DL: optional 2010-2025MHz
Bandwidth
Chip rate nominal 5MHz
3.84Mcps
nominal 5MHz
3.84Mcps
Frame
Slots length
per frame 10ms
15
10ms
15
Inter-BS synchronization
Multi-rate/variable-rate Not needed
Variable spreading factor,
Sync. Needed
Multi-slot, multi-code
scheme
Spreading factor multi-code
DL: 512 to 4

16 to 1 (UL and DL)
Channel coding scheme UL: 256 to 4
Convolutional, Turbo

Convolutional, Turbo
Bearer capability Up to 2Mbps Up to 2Mbps

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4 UMTS Basic Principles
4.3 Radio Resource Management

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4.3 Radio Resource Management
Soft Handover (1/2)

Core network

Iu Iu
Iur
RNC1 RNC2

Iub Iub

Node B2 Node B3

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4.3 Radio Resource Management
Soft Handover (2/2)

Core network

Iu Iu

Iur
SRNC1
RNC1 D
SRNC2
RNC2

Iub Iub Iub Iub

Node Node Node Node


B1 B2 B3 B4

1 2 3 4 5
6

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4.3 Radio Resource Management
Power Control (1/2)

Power Control Issue


Near-far effect in uplink
Minimize the interference level

Node B

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Coverage, Capacity & Quality
Typical Values

Quality: The quality is measured with the Block Error Ratio (BLER). Here some example according
different services.

AMR CS6 PS64 PS1 PS3 DCCH


4 28 84
Target 0.001 0.01 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
BLER

Coverage:
Dense Urban Cell: about 300 meters
SubUrban Cell: about 1 km
Rural Cell: 3 km

Capacity:
The main limitation is the interference level due to the WCDMA technology.
But the system is also limited by capacity processing of the Node B and the RNC, by the codes, and by
the transmission capacity.

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4.3 Radio Resource Management
Power Control (2/2)

Open loop

Tx power
estimation

Closed loop Node B

SIR > SIRtarget ?


TPC command

SIR > SIRtarget ? SIRtarget


Inner Loop Outer Loop adjustment

RNC
Node B

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4.3 Radio Resource Management
Radio Resources

Concentric Coverage: The coverage is determined by the uplink interference level.


Soft capacity: The capacity is determined by the downlink interference level and the code
orthogonality.
Load of the cell: trade-off capacity/coverage (breathing cells).

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End of Module
UMTS Overview

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Section 2
LTE Overview

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LTE goals

Increasing peak data rates


Improving RAN bandwidth and spectral efficiencies
Providing low latency in the radio access network (RAN)
Supporting and providing convergence with other
Networks/technologies
Integrating effectively with other open standards
Co-existing with legacy standards while evolving toward
an all-IP network
Improving services

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LTE architecture comparison– all IP

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eUTRAN (LTE RAN) components
SGW (Serving Gateway)
PGW (PDN Gateway)
MME (Mobility Management Entity)
PCRF (Policy and Charging Rule Function)

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Flattening The Network

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EPS (Evolved Packet Core) component

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LTE EPS Interfaces

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MIMO

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LTE UE categories defined by 3GPP Rel 8

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End of Module
LTE Overview

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