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# Chapter 4:

Bernoulli’s Equation
Zaifah Bt. Che Wil
Department of Civil Engineering
Politeknik Sultan Idris Shah

DIS 2016
UPON COMPLETING THIS CHAPTER, THE STUDENTS ARE
EXPECTED TO BE ABLE TO

## 4.1 Understand the Continuity Equation and its application

- Define velocity, flow rate, and Continuity Equation
- Compute the velocity and discharge using continuity equation for tapered pipe,
branched pipe, ventury and orifice.

4.2 Apply the Bernoulli’s equation and its application in pipe flow.
Rate of flow or discharge , Q
• It is defined as the quantity of a fluid flowing
per second through a section of a pipe or a
channel.

Q=AxV
A = Cross Section area of pipe
V = Average velocity of fluid across the section
SI unit : m3/s
Continuity equation
• The equation of continuity states that in the steady flow of any liquid,
where the parameters (velocity and pressure) do not change in time, the
rate of flow in any section of flow is the same.
• “What comes in comes out.”
Rate of mass Entering = Rate of mass leaving

## Tapered pipe Branched pipe

Example 1
The diameter of a pipe at the section 1 and 2 are 10 cm and 15 cm
respectively. Find the discharge through the pipe if the velocity of water
flowing through the pipe at section 1 is 5 m/s. Determine also the velocity at
section 2 . Ans; Q=0.03927, V=2.22
Example 2
A 30 cm pipe, conveying water, branches into two pipes of diameters 20 cm
and 15 cm. If the average velocity in the 30 cm diameter pipe is 2.5m/s, find
the discharge in this pipe. Also determine the velocity in 15cm pipe if the
average velocity in 20 cm diameter pipe is 2 m/s. Ans; Q=0.1767, v=6.44
Exercise 1
A pipe, through which water is flowing is having diameter 40 cm
and 20 cm at the cross-section 1 and 2 respectively. The velocity
of water at section 1 is given 5.0 m/s. Find the rate of flow and
also velocity at the sections 2. Ans.: 1.274m; 20.387 m; 0.628
m3/s
The Energy Equation
• Energy may be defined as the capacity to do work.
• The forms of energy are
– Potential energy
• This is due to the height above an arbitrary datum.
– Kinetic energy
• This is due to the motion of the mass of fluid.
– Pressure energy
• The pressure in a fluid also does work by generating
force on a cross section which then moves through a
distance. This is energy since work is energy.
Potential energy = Z

Kinetic energy =

Pressure energy =

## Total Head of a liquid

Example 3
Water is flowing through a pipe of 5 cm diameter under a
pressure of 29.43 N/cm2 with mean velocity of flow 2 m/s. Find
the total head of water at the cross-section, which is 5 m above
the datum line.
Exercise 2
Water is flowing through a pipe of 70 mm diameter under a
pressure of 50kPa and with mean velocity of 2.0 m/s. Find the
total head of the water at a cross-section, which is 7 m above the
datum line
Principle of conservation of energy
• The law of conservation of energy states that
• the total amount of energy in an isolated
system remains constant.
• A consequence of this law is that energy
cannot be created nor destroyed.
• The only thing that can happen with energy in
an isolated system is that it can change form,
i.e. kinetic energy can become thermal energy.
Bernoulli’s Equation
Example 3.10
• The water is flowing through a pipe having diameters
20 cm and 10 cm at section 1 respectively. The rate
of flow through pipe is 35 liters/s. The section 1 is 6
m above datum and section 2 is 4 m above datum. If
the pressure at section 1 is 39.24 N/cm2, find the
intensity of pressure at section 2
Exercise 3
The water is flowing through a pipe having diameters 20 cm and
15 cm at sections 1 and 2 respectively. The rate of flow through
pipe is 40 l/s. The section 1 is 6 m above datum line and section
2 is 3 m above the datum. If the pressure at section 1 is 29.43
N/cm2, find the intensity of pressure at section 2. Ans.: 32.19
N/cm2
Venturimeter
It consists of a short converging pipe,
throat, diverging pipe and a piezometer or
manometer to measure the difference of
pressure of flowing liquid between the pipe
and throat section.

## It measure the flow rate of fluids in a pipe.

When the speed of a fluid
increases, the pressure of
the fluid decrease and vice
versa.
Example 3.13
A horizontal venturi meter with an inlet diameter 30 cm and
throat diameter 15 cm is used to measure the flow of water. The
reading in the differential manometer connected to the inlet and
throat is 10 cm of mercury. Determine the flow rate if the
coefficient of venturi meter is 0.98. ans; Q=0.089
Exercise 4
An oil specific gravity of 0.8 is flowing through a venturimeter
having inlet diameter 20 cm and throat diameter 10 cm. The oil
mercury differential manometer shows a readings of 20 cm.
Calculate the flowrate oil through the horizontal venturimeter.
Take Cd = 0.98.
Orifice
• Orifice is a hole or opening
in a vessel which the liquid
flows out
• The typical purpose of an
orifice is the measurement of
discharge
• An orifice may be provided
in the vertical side of a vessel
or in the base
Jet of water
- Continuous stream of a liquid, that comes out or
flows out of an orifice
Vena Contracta
The contraction of liquids flowing out from the
orifice.

dc
do
B

VB =V
Hydraulic coefficient
• Coefficient of contraction, Cc
– The ratio of area of the jet at vena contracta, to the area of
orifice
• Coefficient of velocity, Cv
– The ratio of actual velocity of the jet, at vena-contracta, to the
theoretical velocity
• Coefficient of discharge, Cd
– The ratio of a actual discharge through an orifice to the
theoretical discharge
Discharge through small orifice
Example 3.17
A 4 cm diameter orifices in the vertical side of a large tank
discharges water under a head of 4 m. Cc=0.62, Cv=0.98.
determine
a. The diameter of the jet at vena contracta
b. The velocity of jet at vena contracta
c. The discharge