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Fire Protection Systems

A REPORT BY GROUP 1, AAMT 2 - CHARLIE


FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
 Because fire is one of the most dangerous threats to an
aircraft, the potential fire zones of modern multiengine
aircraft are protected by a fixed fire protection system.
 Fire protection systems on aircraft usually consist of two
separate operating systems. One system is for fire or
overheat detection and the other is for fire suppression
or extinguishing. In some cases, the systems can be
interconnected so extinguishing takes place
automatically after fire is detected.
REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
1. The fire protection system must provide an immediate
warning of fire or overheat by means of a red light and an
audible signal in the cockpit or flight compartment.
2. The system must accurately indicate that a fire has been
extinguished or indicate if a fire reignites.
3. The system must be durable and resistant to damage
from all the environmental factors that may exist in the
location where it is installed.
REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
4. The system must include an accurate and effective method
for testing to assure the integrity of the system.
5. The system must be easily inspected, removed and installed.
6. The system and its components must be designed so the
possibility of false indications in unlikely.
7. The system must require a minimum of electrical power and
must operate from the aircraft electrical system without
inverters or other special equipment.
TYPES OF FIRE OR OVERHEAT DETECTORS
 High temperatures caused by fires or other conditions can be
detected by a variety of devices. Among these are:
1. Thermal Switches
2. Thermocouples
3. Tubular Detectors
THERMAL SWITCHES
A thermal switch, also called a spot detector, works by the
expansion of the outer case of the unit. When the detector is
exposed to heat, the case becomes longer and causes the two
contacts inside the case to be drawn together. When the
contacts meet, the electrical circuit is completed and the alarm
activates.
THERMAL SWITCH
THERMOCOUPLES
A thermocouple detection system, also called a “rate-of-rise”
detection system, utilizes one or more thermocouple connected
in series to activate an alarm system when there is sufficiently
high rate of temperature increase at the sensor.
The thermocouple is made of two dissimilar metals, such as
chromel and constantan, which are twisted together and located
inside an open frame. The frame protects the sensing wires
from damage while allowing free flow of air over the wires.
THERMOCOUPLES
 The exposed wires make up the hot junction. The cold
junction is located behind the insulating material in the
sensor unit. When there is a difference in temperature
between the hot junction and the cold junction, a current is
created. When sufficient current is being generated, the
slave relay is activated causing the alarm to activate.
If the rate of temperature increase is slow enough, the
sensitive relay will not close and the alarm will not activate.
THERMOCOUPLE
TUBULAR DETECTORS
 There are three types of tubular sensing devices, called
“continuous-loop” systems, commonly employed in modern
aircraft for detecting overheat or fire. These sensors are
manufactured by:
1. Fenwal Company
2. Walter Kidde Company
3. Systron-Donner Company
TUBULAR DETECTORS
 The Fenwall sensor consists of small,
lightweight, flexible Inconel tube with a
pure nickel wire-center conductor. The
nickel wire in the center is insulated
from the tube wall by the ceramic and
eutectic salt materials. The spaces
between the nickel conductor and the
tubing wall is filled with porous
aluminum oxide, ceramic insulating
material. The voids and clearances
between the tubing and the ceramic
material are saturated with a eutectic
salt mixture which has a low melting
point
INSTALLATION AND ROUTING OF SENSING UNITS
 The installation of overheat and fire warning sensing units must be
done strictly in accordance with the instructions provided by the
manufacturer. The routing of the sensors has been designed by the
engineers to provide the most effective performance and the
detection of overheat or fire in the most likely areas.
 Routing must take into consideration possible damage to the
sensors.
 Sensors must be supported with specially designed clamps in
which small tubing is held in rubber or soft plastic grommets. These
prevent damage due to vibration or wear.
Installation
Procedure for a
Tubular Sensing
Unit
CLASSES OF FIRES
1. Class A—fires involving ordinary combustible materials, such as
wood, cloth, paper, rubber, and plastics.
2. Class B—fires involving flammable liquids, petroleum oils,
greases, tars, oil-based paints, lacquers, solvents, alcohols, and
flammable gases.
3. Class C—fires involving energized electrical equipment in which
the use of an extinguishing media that is electrically
nonconductive is important.
4. Class D—fires involving combustible metals, such as magnesium,
titanium, zirconium, sodium, lithium, and potassium.
FIRE-EXTINGUISHING AGENTS AND
PORTABLE FIRE EXINGUISHERS
 Fire-extinguishing agents are those chemicals that are
injected into the compartment or area to extinguish a
fire. These agents work by either displacing the oxygen
or chemically combining with the oxygen to prevent
combustion. Some additional extinguishing effect can
occur by the low temperature at which the agents are
discharged.
FIRE-EXTINGUISHING AGENTS AND
PORTABLE FIRE EXINGUISHERS
 Halogenated Hydrocarbons
For over 45 years, halogenated hydrocarbons (Halons) have been
practically the only fire extinguishing agents used in civil transport
aircraft. However, Halon is an ozone depleting and global warming
chemical, and its production has been banned by international
agreement. Although Halon usage has been banned in some parts of
the world, aviation has been granted an exemption because of its
unique operational and fire safety requirements.
Halon has been the fire extinguishing agent of choice in civil aviation
because it is extremely effective on a per unit weight basis over a
wide range of aircraft environmental conditions. It is a clean agent (no
residue), electrically nonconducting, and has relatively low toxicity.
FIRE-EXTINGUISHING AGENTS AND
PORTABLE FIRE EXINGUISHERS
 Inert Cold Gases
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an effective extinguishing agent. It is most
often used in fire extinguishers that are available on the ramp to fight
fires on the exterior of the aircraft, such as engine or APU fires.
CO2has been used for many years to extinguish flammable fluid fires
and fires involving electrical equipment. It is noncombustible and
does not react with most substances.
FIRE-EXTINGUISHING AGENTS AND
PORTABLE FIRE EXINGUISHERS
 Dry Powders
Class A, B, or C fires can be controlled by dry chemical extinguishing
agents. The only all purpose (Class A, B, C rating) dry chemical powder
extinguishers contain mono-ammonium phosphate. All other dry
chemical powders have a Class B, C U.S – UL fire rating only. Dry
powder chemical extinguishers best control class A, B, and C fire but
their use is limited due to residual residue and clean up after
deployment.
FIRE-EXTINGUISHING AGENTS AND
PORTABLE FIRE EXINGUISHERS
Water
Class A type fires are best controlled with water by cooling the
material below its ignition temperature and soaking the material to
prevent re-ignition.
FIRE SUPRESSION SYSTEMS
 Fire-suppression or fire-extinguishing systems usually consist of a
fire-extinguishing agent stored in pressurized containers, tubing to
carry the extinguishing agent to areas that require protection,
control valves, indicators, control circuitry, and associated
components. Systems vary considerably on different aircraft;
however, the basic elements are similar.
FIRE SUPRESSION SYSTEMS
INSPECTION AND SERVICING OF FIRE PROTECTION
EQUIPMENT
 Inspections for fire warning and fire-suppression systems follow
the general procedures for the inspection of other systems.
 Mechanical parts of the systems are examined for damage, wear,
security of mounting and compliance with technical and regulatory
requirements. Electrical control systems are inspected in accordance
with approved practices for electrical systems.
For service of particular fire warning and fire-suppression systems,
the technician must follow carefully the appropriate manufacturer’s
instructions. This is to assure that the correct materials are employes
and proper procedures are followed.