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‡ Well-thought out messages since he writer

has time to think before communicating.

‡ Subjected to careful scrutiny and


‡ Receiver can read message at his


‡ Written document commits the writer

permanently to the ideas expressed on paper.
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‡ Provides medium for wider or restricted use.
In wider use, it may be circulated to a bigger
audience group. In restricted use, secrecy
may be maintained through a sealed

‡ Most accepted vehicle of defense for conflicts.

‡ Carries credibility.
‡ Issuing orders, directives, contracts etc.
‡ When idea verification or authentication is
important for managerial control.
‡ When crucial decisions are to be considered
to avoid ambiguity and misunderstanding.
‡ When ideas need to be stored and retrieved
for future reference.
‡ Recording evidence for legal purposes.
‡ Facilitates decision making: Old records
provide desired information and help in the
decision making process.
‡ Measurement of progress: Comparison with
previous years and with other firms.
‡ Organizational efficiency: Written records
bring clarity.
‡ Legal requirements: Documents need to be
preserved for legal requirements.

‡ Letters
‡ Memo
‡ Notice
‡ Circulars
‡ Reports
‡ Email
‡ Minutes
‡ Journalistic writing/books/journals/brochures.
ë m

‡ Transform ideas into language according to

the ability of the writer to use language.
‡ Write the message
‡ Transmit written material through a medium
like handwriting, typing, drawing or printing.
Familiarity of writer with medium becomes
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‡ Reader¶s ability and speed to read depends

on the transmitting medium¶s readability or
clarity and his familiarity with the medium.

‡ Reader¶s ability to convert the language into

an idea depends on the accuracy of language
and his familiarity of the language and
ë m

‡ All processes operate within an environmental

system, and is based on the country, culture
and social system.

‡ Ability of the writer to generate ideas depends

on writer¶s experience.
ë m

‡ Feedback from reader is essential. Reader

has to understand the message in the same
sense as the writer.
‡ Keep sentences short and simple.
‡ Select words that are familiar to the reader,
and avoid technical jargon.
‡ Avoid unnecessary words and information.
‡ Use active rather than passive voice.
‡ Write to the intended audience ± what they
want to know.
‡ Use appropriate punctuation.
‡ Introduction: Tell the readers what the
message is about.
‡ Developing the argument using examples and
illustrations. Communication needs to be
planned, keeping in mind aspects like
accuracy, appropriateness, brevity and right
‡ Conclusions: Writer needs to evaluate
alternatives and decide on the most
favourable course of action.
‡ Recommendations
‡ Permanent record which serves as legal
‡ Less likely to be misunderstood than oral
messages since it can be referred to again.
‡ Accurate since one can think about what one
is writing.
‡ Information can be disseminated widely
through printing/xerox.
‡ Detailed information (technical) can be
‡ Slow and time consuming process

‡ Feedback is delayed and slow.

‡ Formal and rigid.

‡ Can be understood only by literate people.

‡ Expense of stationery and machinery