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ISOMETRIC DRAWING TYPICAL CONDITION.

IT IS A TYPE OF PICTORIAL PROJECTION IN THIS 3-D DRAWING OF AN OBJECT,

IN WHICH ALL THREE DIMENSIONS OF ALL THREE DIMENSIONAL AXES ARE
AN OBJECT ARE SHOWN IN ONE VIEW AND MENTAINED AT EQUAL INCLINATIONS
IF REQUIRED, THEIR ACTUAL SIZES CAN BE WITH EACH OTHER.( 1200)
MEASURED DIRECTLY FROM IT.

3-D DRAWINGS CAN BE DRAWN NOW OBSERVE BELOW GIVEN DRAWINGS.

IN NUMEROUS WAYS AS SHOWN BELOW. ONE CAN NOTE SPECIFIC INCLINATION
ALL THESE DRAWINGS MAY BE CALLED AMONG H, L & D AXES.
3-DIMENSIONAL DRAWINGS, ISO MEANS SAME, SIMILAR OR EQUAL.
OR PHOTOGRAPHIC HERE ONE CAN FIND
OR PICTORIAL DRAWINGS. EDUAL INCLINATION AMONG H, L & D AXES.
HERE NO SPECIFIC RELATION EACH IS 1200 INCLINED WITH OTHER TWO.
AMONG H, L & D AXES IS MENTAINED. HENCE IT IS CALLED ISOMETRIC DRAWING

H
H H
PURPOSE OF ISOMETRIC DRAWING IS TO UNDERSTAND
OVERALL SHAPE, SIZE & APPEARANCE OF AN OBJECT PRIOR TO IT’S PRODUCTION.
SOME IMPORTANT TERMS:

ISOMETRIC AXES, LINES AND PLANES:

The three lines AL, AD and AH, meeting at point A and making
1200 angles with each other are termed Isometric Axes.
A
The lines parallel to these axes are called Isometric Lines.

The planes representing the faces of of the cube as well as

H
other planes parallel to these planes are called Isometric Planes.

ISOMETRIC SCALE:
When one holds the object in such a way that all three dimensions
are visible then in the process all dimensions become proportionally
inclined to observer’s eye sight and hence appear apparent in lengths.

This reduction is 0.815 or 9 / 11 ( approx.) It forms a reducing scale which

Is used to draw isometric drawings and is called Isometric scale.

In practice, while drawing isometric projection, it is necessary to convert

true lengths into isometric lengths for measuring and marking the sizes.
This is conveniently done by constructing an isometric scale as described
on next page.
TYPES OF ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS

ISOMETRIC VIEW ISOMETRIC PROJECTION

Drawn by using True scale Drawn by using Isometric scale
( True dimensions ) ( Reduced dimensions )

D
4

H 2 C H
4

1 3

2
CONSTRUCTION OF ISOM.SCALE.
0 From point A, with line AB draw 300 and
1
450 Mark divisions of true length and from
0 300
A B each division-point draw vertical lines
upto AC line.
Isometric scale [ Line AC ] The divisions thus obtained on AC
required for Isometric Projection give lengths on isometric scale.
1 Isometric view if the Shape is
ISOMETRIC SHAPE
OF
F.V. or T.V.
D
PLANE FIGURES H
RECTANGLE D
A D A
AS THESE ALL ARE
C
2-D FIGURES C
WE REQUIRE ONLY TWO A
ISOMETRIC AXES.
B C B B
IF THE FIGURE IS B
H
FRONT VIEW, H & L
TRIANGLE B
AXES ARE REQUIRED. 1
3
B 1 3
IF THE FIGURE IS TOP A A
VIEW, D & L AXES ARE 3
1
REQUIRED.
2 A 2 2
Shapes containing 4
Inclined lines should PENTAGON H E
be enclosed in a 1 E
4 1 D 4
rectangle as shown. D
Then first draw isom. A D A
E

of that rectangle and 1 3

then inscribe that 3 A C
C
shape as it is. 2 B
B C 3 B
2 2
STUDY 2
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS

DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF A

CIRCLE IF IT IS A TV OR FV.

FIRST ENCLOSE IT IN A SQUARE.

IT’S ISOMETRIC IS A RHOMBUS WITH
D & L AXES FOR TOP VIEW.
THEN USE H & L AXES FOR ISOMETRIC
WHEN IT IS FRONT VIEW.
FOR CONSTRUCTION USE RHOMBUS
METHOD SHOWN HERE. STUDY IT.
2

A B

3 4

D C

1
3
STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS
25 R

DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF THE FIGURE

SHOWN WITH DIMENTIONS (ON RIGHT SIDE)
CONSIDERING IT FIRST AS F.V. AND THEN T.V.
50 MM

IF FRONT VIEW

100 MM

IF TOP VIEW
ISOMETRIC SHAPE IF F.V. IF T.V. 4
OF
PLANE FIGURES HEXAGON

AS THESE ALL ARE

2-D FIGURES
WE REQUIRE ONLY
TWO ISOMETRIC
AXES. CIRCLE

IF THE FIGURE IS
FRONT VIEW, H & L
AXES ARE REQUIRED.

IF THE FIGURE IS
TOP VIEW, D & L For Isometric of Circle/Semicircle use Rhombus method. Construct Rhombus
AXES ARE REQUIRED. of sides equal to Diameter of circle always. ( Ref. topic ENGG. CURVES.)

SEMI CIRCLE
For Isometric of
Circle/Semicircle
use Rhombus method.
Construct it of sides equal
to diameter of circle always.
( Ref. Previous two pages.)
5
STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS ISOMETRIC VIEW OF
PENTAGONAL PYRAMID
STANDING ON H.P.
(Height is added from center of pentagon)

ISOMETRIC VIEW OF BASE OF

PENTAGONAL PYRAMID
STANDING ON H.P.

4
4
D
D E
E

1 3 1 3
A C
A C
B
2
B
2
6
STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS
ISOMETRIC VIEW OF
PENTAGONALL PRISM
LYING ON H.P.

4
H E
1 D

3
C
B
2
ISOMETRIC VIEW OF
HEXAGONAL PRISM
STANDING ON H.P.
7
STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS
CYLINDER STANDING ON H.P.

CYLINDER LYING ON H.P.

8
STUDY
Z HALF CYLINDER
ILLUSTRATIONS
STANDING ON H.P.
( ON IT’S SEMICIRCULAR BASE)

HALF CYLINDER
LYING ON H.P.
( with flat face // to H.P.)
9
ISOMETRIC VIEW OF
STUDY
Z A FRUSTOM OF SQUARE PYRAMID
ILLUSTRATIONS
STANDING ON H.P. ON IT’S LARGER BASE.

60
FV

X Y

40 20

TV
STUDY 10
ILLUSTRATION

PROJECTIONS OF FRUSTOM OF ISOMETRIC VIEW

PENTAGONAL PYRAMID ARE GIVEN. OF
FRUSTOM OF PENTAGONAL PYRAMID
DRAW IT’S ISOMETRIC VIEW.

SOLUTION STEPS:
60
FV
FIRST DRAW ISOMETRIC
OF IT’S BASE.

x y THEN DRAWSAME SHAPE

E AS TOP, 60 MM ABOVE THE
1 4 BASE PENTAGON CENTER.
A
THEN REDUCE THE TOP TO
20 MM SIDES AND JOIN WITH
TV 40 20 D THE PROPER BASE CORNERS.

B
2 3
C
ISOMETRIC VIEW OF 11
STUDY A FRUSTOM OF CONE
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS STANDING ON H.P. ON IT’S LARGER BASE.

60
FV

X Y

40 20

TV
PROBLEM: A SQUARE PYRAMID OF 30 MM BASE SIDES AND 12
STUDY 50 MM LONG AXIS, IS CENTRALLY PLACED ON THE TOP OF A
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS CUBE OF 50 MM LONG EDGES.DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF THE PAIR.
13
STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS

c
PROBLEM: A TRIANGULAR PYRAMID
OF 30 MM BASE SIDES AND 50 MM a
LONG AXIS, IS CENTRALLY PLACED o
ON THE TOP OF A CUBE OF 50 MM p a
LONG EDGES. b
DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF THE PAIR. o c
p

SOLUTION HINTS.
TO DRAW ISOMETRIC OF A CUBE IS SIMPLE. DRAW IT AS USUAL.

BUT FOR PYRAMID AS IT’S BASE IS AN EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE,

IT CAN NOT BE DRAWN DIRECTLY.SUPPORT OF IT’S TV IS REQUIRED.

SO DRAW TRIANGLE AS A TV, SEPARATELY AND NAME VARIOUS POINTS AS SHOWN.

AFTER THIS PLACE IT ON THE TOP OF CUBE AS SHOWN.
THEN ADD HEIGHT FROM IT’S CENTER AND COMPLETE IT’S ISOMETRIC AS SHOWN.
14
STUDY PROBLEM:
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS
A SQUARE PLATE IS PIERCED THROUGH CENTRALLY
BY A CYLINDER WHICH COMES OUT EQUALLY FROM BOTH FACES
OF PLATE. IT’S FV & TV ARE SHOWN. DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW.

FV 30

10

30

30 D

50 +

50

TV
15
STUDY PROBLEM:
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS A CIRCULAR PLATE IS PIERCED THROUGH CENTRALLY
BY A SQUARE PYRAMID WHICH COMES OUT EQUALLY FROM BOTH FACES
OF PLATE. IT’S FV & TV ARE SHOWN. DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW.

FV 30

10

30

40 SQUARE

60 D
TV
16
STUDY
Z F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.
ILLUSTRATIONS

10

20
40

FV

40

X Y

TV

50 D 30 D
STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS ISOMETRIC PROJECTIONS OF SPHERE & HEMISPHERE 17

450 r

300 R r
r
Isom. Scale
P

C
r r
R C
R TO DRAW ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
R OF A HEMISPHERE
P r
C = Center of Sphere. Draw lower semicircle only.
Then around ‘C’ construct
P = Point of contact Rhombus of Sides equal to
R = True Radius of Sphere Isometric Diameter.
r = Isometric Radius. For this use iso-scale.
Then construct ellipse in
TO DRAW ISOMETRIC PROJECTION OF A SPHERE this Rhombus as usual
1. FIRST DRAW ISOMETRIC OF SQUARE PLATE. And Complete
2. LOCATE IT’S CENTER. NAME IT P. Isometric-Projection
3. FROM PDRAW VERTICAL LINE UPWARD, LENGTH ‘ r mm’ of Hemi-sphere.
AND LOCATE CENTER OF SPHERE “C”
4. ‘C’ AS CENTER, WITH RADIUS ‘R’ DRAW CIRCLE.
THIS IS ISOMETRIC PROJECTION OF A SPHERE.
PROBLEM: 18
A HEMI-SPHERE IS CENTRALLY PLACED STUDY
ON THE TOP OF A FRUSTOM OF CONE. Z
ILLUSTRATIONS
DRAW ISOMETRIC PROJECTIONS OF THE ASSEMBLY.

r
50 D
R r
30 D
r
50
P

50 D

FIRST CONSTRUCT ISOMETRIC SCALE.

USE THIS SCALE FOR ALL DIMENSIONS
IN THIS PROBLEM.

450

300
19
STUDY A SQUARE PYRAMID OF 40 MM BASE SIDES AND 60 MM AXIS
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS
IS CUT BY AN INCLINED SECTION PLANE THROUGH THE MID POINT
OF AXIS AS SHOWN.DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF SECTION OF PYRAMID.

3’ 4’

3 1’2’

X Y
1 a d
1
4

2
o

3
b 2 c
20
STUDY
Z F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.
ILLUSTRATIONS

50

O
X Y

20

25

O
25 20
21
STUDY
Z F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.
ILLUSTRATIONS

35
FV

35

10
x y
O

10 20 30

40

70

TV
O
22
STUDY
Z F.V. & T.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.
ILLUSTRATIONS

FV

30 10 30 SV

30

10

30
x y

ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL

TV
24
STUDY
Z F.V. & T.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.
ILLUSTRATIONS

ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL

FV SV

x y

10
40 60

40
TV
60
F.V. & T.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.
25
STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS
ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL

FV SV

x y
10

40 60

40 TV

60
26
STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS
F.V. & T.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW

20

20

20
x y
O
50

20

30

O
20 20 20

TOP VIEW
27
STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS
F.V. and S.V.of an object are given.
Draw it’s isometric view.

30 SQUARE
40 20

50

20
10

O 30
60
F.V.
S.V.
O
28
STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS
F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.

FV
40

10
O
30 D 45

10
50
O

80

TV
29
STUDY F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS

FV 40

X O 10 Y
100
10
25
TV
10 30 10
25
30 R O
20 D
30
STUDY F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS

30

FV
RECT.
SLOT

10 50
35

10
X Y
O
20 D

TV

60 D
30 D

O
31
STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS
F.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.

10

25 15

25
40 10

25

25

O O
80 25

F.V. S.V.
F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.
32
STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS

450

30
FV

40

X Y
O
30 D

40 TV

15
O 40
33
STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS
F.V. and S.V.of an object are given.
Draw it’s isometric view.

HEX PART
30
20
20
40
20

O 50
20
15

O 30
100 60
34
STUDY F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS
20 40

F.V.
30

10
X Y
O

10

30

10

30
O 80

T.V.
F.V. and S.V.of an object are given.
35
Draw it’s isometric view.

10 10 15 STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS
25

25
X Y
O 50 10
FV LSV

36
NOTE THE SMALL CHZNGE IN 2ND FV & SV.
DRAW ISOMETRIC ACCORDINGLY.

10

X Y
O FV LSV
37
STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS

F.V. and S.V.of an object are given.

Draw it’s isometric view.

30 20 10 20

15
10

15

O
15
30

15
X O Y
50
F.V. LEFT S.V.
38
STUDY
Z
ILLUSTRATIONS
F.V. and S.V.of an object are given.
Draw it’s isometric view.

30 10

60

30
O

O 40 40
F.V. S.V.