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A SEMINAR ON

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF
VARIOUS TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
Session -: 2018-19

Under the Guidance of


Compiled By:
Mr. GURMEET SINGH ARORA
ANIKET TRIPATHI
Assistant Professor
1616440024
Department of Mechanical
ME-III A
Engineering
PSIT Kanpur 1
ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT
ABSTRACT
 This Report is an effort to give information about the transmission system.
 Transmission in automobiles is a unit which supplies the power from the clutch to
the differential.

 The simplest transmissions are manual transmissions which consist of a set of


gears which are in mesh when transmitting power
 The automatic transmission no more consists of a clutch unit.
 There is no gear shift in automatic transmission car. Once you put the transmission
in the drive, every thing else is automatic.

 the vehicles with automatic transmissions are not very popular in India. This is
because the cost of such vehicles is comparatively high and low fuel economy.

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ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT
CONTENT
• ABSTRACT

• INTRODUCTION TO TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

• TRANSMISSION CHARACTERISTICS

• REQUIREMENT OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

• TYPES OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

• MANUAL TRANSMISSION

• GEAR BOX

• CLUTCH

• ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

• AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION

• PLANATERY GEAR SET

• TORQUE CONVERTER

• ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

• CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION

• WORKING

• ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

• CONCLUSION
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ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT
INTRODUCTION TO
TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
 The mechanism that transmits the power developed by the engine of
 automobile to the engine to the driving wheels is called the
 TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (or POWER TRAIN).It is composed of –
 Clutch
 The gear box
 Propeller shaft
 Universal joints
 Rear axle
 Wheel
 Tyres Fig No.: 01

ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT


TRANSMISSION
CHARACTERISTICS
• The transmission is mounted to the rear of the engine.
• It is design to allow the car to move forward and in reverse.
• It also has a neutral position. In this position, the engine can
run without applying power to the drive wheels.

ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT


REQUIREMENT OF TRANSMISSION
SYSTEM
 Provide means of connection and disconnection of engine with rest of
power train without shock and smoothly.
 Provide a varied leverage between the engine and the drive wheels
 Provide means to transfer power in opposite direction.
 Enable power transmission at varied angles and varied lengths.
 Enable speed reduction between engine and the drive wheels in the
ratio
of 5:1.
 Enable diversion of power flow at right angles.
 Provide means to drive the driving wheels at different speeds when
required.
 Bear the effect of torque reaction , driving thrust and braking effort
effectively.

ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT


TYPES OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
• Manual transmission
• Automatic transmission
• Continuously variable transmission

ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT


MANUAL TRANSMISSION
 A manual transmission also
known as manual gear box.

 It is a type of transmission used


in motor vehicle application.

 This transmission allow the


driver select any forward or
reverse gear at any time by
operate a pedal and gear shift.

 This operation is for regulating


Fig No. 02 torque transfer from ICE to the
transmission. 8

ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT


WORKING OF MANUAL
TRANSMISSION
• The transmission is connected
to the engine through the
clutch.
• The input shaft of the
transmission therefore turns at
the same rpm as the engine.
• A five-speed transmission
applies one of five different
gear ratios to the input shaft to
produce a different rpm value
at the output shaft.
Fig No. 03
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ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT


CLUTCH
A clutch is a mechanism which enables the rotary motion of one shaft to be transmitted at
will to second shaft ,whose axis is coincident with that of first.
Clutch is located between engine and gear box. When the clutch is engaged, the power
flows from the engine to the rear wheels through the transmission system and the vehicle
moves . when the clutch is disengaged ,the power is not transmitted to the rear wheels and
the vehicle stops, while the engine is still running.
 Clutch is disengaged when
A)Starting the engine,
B) Shifting the gears,
C) Idling the engine
Clutch is engaged only when the vehicle is to move and is kept engaged when the vehicle is
moving.

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Fig No. 04
ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT
FUNCTION OF A CLUTCH :-
A) TO PERMIT ENGAGEMENT OR DISENGAGEMENT OF A GEAR WHEN THE VEHICLE IS
STATIONARY AND THE
ENGINE IS RUNNING
B) TO TRANSMIT THE ENGINE POWER TO THE ROAD WHEELS SMOOTHLY WITHOUT
SHOCK TO THE TRANSMISSION
SYSTEM WHILE SETTING THE WHEEL IN MOTION.
C) TO PERMIT THE ENGAGING OF GEARS WHEN THE VEHICLE IS IN MOTION WITHOUT
DAMAGING THE GEAR
WHEELS.

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF A CLUTCH :-


THE CLUTCH PRINCIPLE IS BASED ON FRICTION . WHEN TWO FRICTION
SURFACE ARE BROUGHT IN CONTACT
WITH EACH OTHER AND PRESSED THEY ARE UNITED DUE TO FRICTION
BETWEEN THEM. IF ONE IS REVOLVED THE OTHER WILL ALSO REVOLVE . THE
FRICTION BETWEEN THE TWO SURFACES DEPENDS UPON
I. AREA OF THE SURFACE,
II. PRESSURE APPLIED UPON THEM,
III. COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION OF THE SURFACE MATERIALS

HERE , ONE SURFACE IS CONSIDERED AS DRIVING MEMBER AND THE OTHER


AS DRIVEN MEMBER.

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ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT


ADVANTAGES

 Cost of manual transmission is low


 Fuel efficiency is higher because of low energy loss of clutch
plate based system
 Maintainance cost is low.
 Driver can choose between fuel efficiency and thrill.

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ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT


DISADVANTAGES

 • Produce jerk to vehicle during the change of gears.


 • Considerable loss of power in the transmission system.
 • Low starting acceleration.
 • Considerable driving fatigue

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ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT


AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION
• An automatic transmission is
a transmission that can change
gear ratios automatically as the
vehicle moves.

• For automatic transmission,


the driver only needs to operate
a gear-shift once (forward and
reverse) and do not need to
control a clutch.
Fig. 2

Fig No. 05
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ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT


PLANATERY GEAR SET
• A gear set in which all of the gears
are in one plane, grouped around
each other like the planets around
the sun.
• The central gear is called the "sun
gear". In mesh with it is a circular
grouping of gears, called "planet
gears", mounted on a rotating carrier.
• The planet gears also engage teeth
on the inner periphery of the "ring
gear".
• By holding any one of the three gear
elements motionless, different ratios
can be produced between the other
two. Planetary gear sets are common
in automatic transmissions 15

Fig No. 06
ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT
TORQUE CONVERTER
• Torque converter is a hydraulic transmission
which increases
• the torque of the vehicle reducing its speed . It
provides a continuous variation of
• ratio from low to high. The key characteristic
of a torque converter is its ability to
• multiply torque when there is a substantial
difference between input and output
• rotational speed, thus providing the equivalent
of a reduction gear. cars with
• an automatic transmission have no clutch that
disconnects the transmission from
• the engine. So, they use an amazing device
Fig No. 07 called a torque converter 16

ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT


ADVANTAGES

 It's a lot less work because you don't have to worry about
juggling the gearshift with the clutch.
 You don't need to worry about stripping your gears.
 You don't need to worry about "launching" your car properly
(just press on the gas and it goes), which is especially
important when you're forced to stop on a hill.

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ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT


DISADVANTAGES

 The ‘killer’ of automatic transmissions is heat. Excessive heat


causes the fluid to lose its ability to lubricate, which leads to
higher internal-component friction, all resulting in rapid wear-
and-tear and premature transmission failure
 Then there's fuel economy. People who love stick-shifts like to
point out that a car with a standard transmission will
automatically use slightly less gas than one with an automatic.

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ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT


CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE
TRANSMISSION
• Two variable-diameter pulleys, each shaped like a pair

• of opposing cones, with a metal belt or chain running

• between them. One pulley is connected to the engine

• (input shaft) and the other to the drive wheels (output

• shaft).

• • Attains infinite transmission ratios

• • The transmission shifts gears to provide the most

• appropriate ratio for a given situation: Lowest gears for

• starting out, middle gears for acceleration and passing,


Fig No.08
• and higher gears for fuel-efficient cruising.

• • As the car accelerates, the pulleys vary their diameter

• to lower the engine speed as car speed rises.

• A transmission that change through an infinite number of effective gear ratios between maximum and minimum
values
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• Automatic transmission providing more useable power

• CVT not constrained to a small number of gear ratios, such as the 4 to 6 forward ratios.
WORKING

uses a pulley and belt system to provide to


provide an unlimited range of gear ratios
To facilitate different gear ratios, variation
has to be made in the working diameters of
the two main pulleys in the transmission
One side fixed and one side is moveable
Movement facilitated by a hydraulic
cylinder which can change the space
between the two sides of the pulley
When the pulley halves come closer to
each other, the belt that runs between them
goes higher on the pulley, which in turn
increases the diameter of the pulley.
Ratio is continuously being changed

Fig No. 09

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ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT


• Widening and contracting
• of Pulleys lead to variation
• in transmission ratios

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Fig No. 10

ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT


ADVANTAGES

• Smooth Operation
• Better Acceleration
• Better fuel Economy
• Transmission ratio can be adjusted continuously
• Eliminates gear hunting especially when going up a hill.
• Maximum efficiency

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ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT


DISADVANTAGES

• CVT allow I.C Vehicles to meet the first wave of New Fuel
regulation.

• As CVT development continues , cost reduced further &


performance continue to increase.

• Cycle of improvement will ultimately give CVT a foundation in


worlds automotive infrastructure.

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ANIKET TRIPATHI/1616440024/MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT/PSIT


CONCLUSION

• The following points can be made in summary:


• 1)The choice of the transmission system can be judged on the following basis:
• High torque apllications- Manual transmissions eg. Tractor,truck
• Where continuity is the main concern-CVT eg. Light vehicles,cars
• Required several ratios which are needed to be switched quickly-Automatic
transmission eg performance cars like mustang,camero.
• 2) Automatic transmission vehicles are easier to drive as they don’t contain a
clutch pedal.
• 3) All the cars in india are shifting from manual to automatic transmission.They
are better than manual transmission in both performance and in pickup in
normal roads and hill climbing.

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