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ChE 416

Classical definition:
Safety – freedom from those conditions that can cause
death, injury, occupational illness, damage to loss
of equipment or property, or damage to

Alternative definition:
Safety – managing complexity without going crazy and
ensuring completeness and consistency
• Safety – concerned with injury-causing situations
- also concerned with hazards to humans that
result from sudden severe conditions
• Health – concerned with disease-causing conditions
- deals with adverse reactions to prolonged
exposure to dangerous but less intense
• Accident – an unplanned event leading to
unpleasant consequences. The consequences
may include injury to people, damage to the
environment, or loss of inventory and
production, or damage to equipment
• Hazard – a chemical or physical condition that has the
potential for causing damage to people, property, or
the environment
• Risk – a measure of human injury, environmental
damage, or economic loss in terms of both the incident
likelihood (probability) and magnitude of the loss or
injury ( consequence)
• Safety is about communication at all levels
(engineers, managers, computer networks)
• Goal: Establish common understanding of concepts
• Implementation = transformation of concepts to actions
• Terminology is not about finding “the true meaning”
• It teaches us to be sensitive to imprecision when
communicating abstract concepts
• Systems safety is about mitigation of problems arising
from application of non-matching concepts
So you want to develop safe systems?
• Hard to say knowledge
• Safety is NOT a set of facts
• It is a wide range knowledge that needs to be
• This relation happens at multiple (all) levels
• Everybody starts with naïve concepts of safety
Importance of Safety in the Workplace
A good health and safety program can:
1. Reduce injuries
2. Stop the slaughter
3. Save money
4. Boost morale
5. Improve efficiency
6. Improve productivity
7. Provide regulatory compliance
• Reasons to make safety important:
1. Responsibility to self
2. Responsibility to family
3. Responsibility to not endanger co-workers
4. Productivity and health of the company
1. Early History
• The ancient Chinese (2500 BC) spread the risk of loss
by placing 1/6 of their harvest on each of six boats
travelling to the market
• Hammurabi (2000 BC), ruler of Babylon, was
responsible for the Code of Hammurabi, dealing with
injuries, allowable fees for physicians, and monetary
• Ancient Egyptians (1500 BC) Rameses created an
industrial medical service to care for the workers:
workers were required to bathe daily in the Nile; were
given regular medical examinations; sick workers were
• The Romans built aqueducts, sewerage systems, public
baths, latrines, and well-ventilated houses.
• 1567 – Philippus Aureolus produced a treatise on the
pulmonary diseases of miners
2. 17th and 18th Century
• 1601 – the first English statute on “assurance” (early
term for insurance) was enacted which covered marine
• 1667 – the Great Fire of London caused the first fire
insurance laws to be enacted
• 1730 – Benjamin Franklin organized the first fire
fighting company in the US as well as detecting lead
poisoning symptoms with Dr. Alice Evans
3. Industrial Revolution (1800’s)
• Introduction of steam power to replace people
and animals; substitution of machines for
people; introduction of new methods for
converting raw materials; organization and
specialization of work resulting in division of
• 1880 – the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME) was founded in New York
City. A17 Safety Code was founded.
• 1900’s – worker hours allow little to no time for
life outside work (14-18 hr days)
• 1908 – workers’ compensation concept was first
introdced in the US
• Oct. 14, 1911 – The American Society of Safety
Engineers (ASSE) was founded, dedicated to the
development of accident prevention techniques,
and in the advancement of the safety engineering
Milestones in the Safety Movement:
• 1912 – the National Safety Council (NSC) was formed
to discuss data on accident prevention.
• 1918 – the American Standards Association was
founded. This is now called the American National
Standards Institute (ANSI).
• 1966 – the Metal and Nonmetallic Mines Safety Act
(MNMSA)was passed
• 1969 – the Construction Safety Act (CSA) was passed
• 1970 – US Pres. Richard Nixon signed into law The
Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA).
• 1972 – the Consumers Product Safety Act was signed
into law
• 1976 – the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act
was passed and became the instrument by which the
management of hazardous waste is regulated
• 1990 – the amendment of the Clean Air Act
• 1996 – the concept of Total Safety Management
(TSM) was introduced to help safety professionals
subscribe to the Total Quality Management (TQM)
philosophy and/or that pursue ISO 9000 registration.
• 2000 – US firms began to pursue ISO 14000
registration for environmental safety management
• 2003 – workplace terrorism is an ongoing concern of
safety and health professionals
• 2010 – off-the-job safety becomes an issue

Section 1. The Philippines is a democratic and

republican State. Sovereignty resides in the people and
all government authority emanates from them.

• Section 15. The State shall protect and promote the right
to health of the people and instill health consciousness
among them.
• Section 18. The State affirms labor a primary social
economic force. It shall protect the rights of workers and
promote their welfare.
• Section 20. The State recognizes the indispensable role
of private sector, encourages private enterprise and
provides incentives to needed investments.

Section 3.
• The State shall afford full protection to labor, local and
overseas, organized, and promote full employment and
equality of employment opportunities for all.

• It shall guarantee the rights of all workers to self-

organization, collective bargaining and negotiations, and
peaceful concerted activities, including the right to strike in
accordance with the law. They shall be entitled to security of
tenure, humane condition of work, living wage. They shall also
participate in policy and decision-making processes affecting
their rights and benefits as may be provided by law.
• The State shall promote the principle of shared
responsibility between workers and employers and the
preferential use of voluntary modes in setting disputes,
including compliance therewith to foster industrial peace.

• The State shall regulate the relation between workers

and employers, recognizing the right of labor to its just
share in the fruits of production and the right of enterprises
to reasonable returns on investments, and to expansion and
• Law: P.D. 442

• Title: Labor Code of the Philippines

• Year Passed: 1974

• Relevant Provisions: BOOK IV, Chapter 1 (Medical and Dental

Services) & Chapter II (Occupational Safety)

• Implementing Agency: DOLE

• Content: A consolidation of labor and social laws to afford full

protection to labor, promote employment and human resources
development and ensure industrial peace based social justice.
The DOLE is the lead agency of the government in charge in
the administration and enforcement of laws, policies, and
programs on occupational safety and health. (Presidential
Decree No. 442 of the Labor Code of the Philippines)

DOLE Thrusts:
• Promotion of employment and human resources
• Maintenance of industrial peace
• Workers’ protection and welfare

• a staff bureau of the Department of Labor and Employment

• started as the Bureau of Industrial Safety (BIS) on June 10,
1949 through Republic Act 367
• BIS was changed to Division of Industrial Safety in 1950 and
then became the Bureau of Labor Standards (BLS) on December
10, 1956 by virtue of Executive Order 218
• BLS was renamed the Bureau of Working Conditions (BWC) on
May 1, 1982 by virtue of Executive Order No. 797
The BWC shall primarily perform policy and program
development and advisory functions for the Department in
the administration and enforcement of laws relating to labor

The BWC has the following functions:

• Develops and prescribes labor standards as well as
policies, programs and devices on its administration and
• Exercises technical and functional supervision over the
regional offices on the administration and enforcement
activities including developmental programs, projects and
• Conducts researches in aid of safety standards, policy
programs, measures and devices development on
labor standards and its administration
and enforcement;
• Provides knowledge and information services on labor
standards data, programs and enforcement activities;
• Performs other functions as may be required by law or
assigned by the Secretary of Labor and Employment
in the administration and enforcement of labor
• Legislation: E.O 307

• Enacted: November 4, 1987

• Title:
attached agency of the Department of Labor and Employment.

• The protection of workers through the preventive

approach of reducing/eliminating occupational
accidents and illnesses.

• The promotion of workers’ welfare through the

effective implementation of OSH programs that will
enhance productivity and subsequently contribute to
national economic development efforts.
• Undertake continuing studies and researches on
occupational safety and health
• Plan, develop and implement occupational safety and
health training programs
• Serve as clearing house for occupational safety and
health information, methods, techniques, and
approaches; and, institute an information dissemination
• Monitor work environment and conduct medical
examinations of workers.
• Serve as duly recognized agency for testing and setting
standard specifications of Personal Protective Equipment
and other safety devices

• Assist other GO’s in policy and standards formation on

occupational safety and health matters; issue technical
guidelines for prevention of occupational disease and

• Enlist assistance of GO’s and NGO’s in achieving the

objectives of the Center.
• Republic Act No. 8282 -"Social Security System Act of 1997"
• Republic Act No. 8291 -"Government Service Insurance System
(GSIS) Act of 1997"
• Republic Act No. 7699 -"Limited Portability Scheme"
• Republic Act No. 7875-"National Health Insurance Act of
• Republic Act No. 7742-"Pag-IBIG Fund,"
• Republic Act No. 8425 -"Social Reform and Poverty Alleviation
-these have introduced significant changes on the health, safety
and social welfare benefits of all workers..

• Legal Basis: Article 162, Chapter II

(Safety and Health Standards):

• “The Secretary of Labor

shall, by appropriate orders, set
and enforce the mandatory
Occupational Safety and Health
Standards to eliminate or reduce
occupational safety and health
hazards in all workplaces and
institute new, and update existing
programs to ensure safe and
healthful working conditions in all
places of employment.”
• A. Rule 1001: Purpose and Scope

1. What is the Occupational Safety and Health Standards?

• The OSH Standards (referred to as simply ‘Standards’) is a set
of 28 (about 10 are highly technical) mandatory rules
(Administrative, Technical, and Medical) on occupational safety
and health promulgated pursuant to Article 162, Book IV of the
Labor Code of the Philippines, PD. 442.
• Patterned after the standards of other developed countries
• The first amendment was approved on August 1989 By Sec.
Ruben Torres.
• 2. What is the Objective of the OSH Standards?
To protect every workingman against the dangers
of injury, sickness or death through safe and
healthful working conditions, thereby assuring the
conservation of valuable manpower resources and
the prevention of loss or damage to lives and
properties, consistent with national development
goals and with the State's commitment for the
total development of every worker as a complete
human being.
3. What is the scope of the Standards?
The standards shall apply to all places of
employment except land, sea, and air
transportation. The garages docks, port hangars,
maintenance, and repair shops, however are
covered by the Standards. Safety in mines is also
not covered by the standards. Safety in
transportation and mines are under other
agencies of the government.
• B. Rule 1002: Definitions

• (1) "Employer" includes any person acting directly or indirectly

in the interest of an employer, in relation to an employee, and
shall include government-owned or controlled corporations and
institutions, as well as non-profit private institutions or

• (2) "Employee" shall mean any person hired, permitted or

suffered to work by an employer
• (6) "Health" shall connote a sound state of the body
and mind of the worker, which enables him to perform
his job normally, in a state of well-being.
• (7) "Safe or Safety" shall refer to the physical or
environmental conditions of work or employment, which
substantially comply with the provisions of this
• (11)"Recognized Hazards" are those which do not
require technical or testing devices to detect.
C. Rule 1003: Administration and Employment

Who enforces the OSH Standards?

• The standards are enforced by the 16 DOLE Regional
Offices and their district offices in different parts of
the country .
• The BWC exercises technical supervision over
enforcement of the Standards
Each employer covered by the provisions of the Standards shall:
• Furnish his workers a place of employment free from hazardous
conditions that are likely to cause death, illness or physical harm
to his workers
• Give complete job safety instructions, especially to those
entering the job for the first time
• Comply with the requirements of the standards
• Use only approved devices and equipment in his workplace.
• Rule 1013: Hazardous Workplaces
The following are considered "hazardous workplaces:"
• a. Where the nature of work exposes the workers to
dangerous environmental elements, contaminants or
work conditions including ionizing radiation, chemicals,
fire, flammable substances, noxious components and
the like;
• b. Where the workers are engaged in construction
work, logging, fire fighting, mining, quarrying,
blasting, stevedoring, dock work, deep-sea fishing and
mechanized farming;
c. Where the workers are engaged in the manufacture
or handling of explosives and other pyrotechnic

d. Where the workers use or are exposed to power

driven or explosive powder actuated tools;

e. Where the workers are exposed to biologic agents

such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoas, nematodes,
and other parasites.
Rule 1030

a)Criteria for Training:

(1) A Bureau-prescribed course of study shall be used or followed by
accredited organizations. Any deviation from the prescribed training
course must be with the previous approval of the Bureau.

(2) Provisions for adequate training facilities for the holding of training
including laboratory facilities, library, training rooms and equipment.

(3) Training staff must be composed of persons recognized by the

Bureau, duly trained by and certified to as competent by the Bureau
or accredited
• SAFETY OFFICER – any employee/worker trained to
implement occupational safety and health programs in
the wokplace in accordance with the provisions of the
standards and shall be synonymous to the term
‘SAFETY MAN”. ( can be unlicensed)
refers to physicians, Nurse, Dentist Chemist, Engineers,
Safety Office, First-Aider and other persons engaged
by the employer to provide occupational safety and
health services.
HEALTH – any qualified person as assessed and duly-
accredited by the Bureau to practice and render
occupational safety and health services in a defined
and specific scope or core competency.
any practitioner in occupational safety and health or
group of persons or organizations duly-accredited by
the Bureau to practice, perform and/or render
consultative/advisory services on occupational safety
and health in at least two fields of specialization.
• TRAINER – a person who facilitates learning situation
in onr or more topics in an occupational safety and
health training.
• TRAINING ORGANIZATION – an institution accredited
or authorized by law to conduct training in a
particular field on occupational safety and health
potential hazard within the company may effect the
safety and/or health of workers not only within but
also persons outside the premises of the workplace.
The following are workplaces commonly associated with
potentially high hazardous activities:
• Petrochemical works and refineries
• Chemical works and chemical production plants
• LPG storage and materials
• Large fertilizer stores
• Explosives factories
• Stores and distribution center for
toxic/hazardous chemicals
• At least the following number of supervisors or
technical personnel shall take the required training
and shall be appointed safety man, full time or part-
time depending on the number of workers employed,
and the type of workplace whether hazardous or non-
• Major fields of specialization of practitioners and
consultants on occupational safety and health:
• Occupational Health Practitioners such as
Occupational Health Physician, Nurse, and Dentist
• Occupational Hygiene Practitioner
• Occupational Safety Practitioner in the ff industry
- food products and beverage
- tobacco products
- textiles/wearing apparel
- leather tanning and dressing
- wood and wood products
- paper and paper products
- rubber and plastic products
- basic metals
- coke, refined petroleum and other fuel products
- electrical machinery and apparatus
- radio, television and communications equipment
- motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers
- recycling
- construction
- Hotels and Restaurants
1000: General Provisions 1140: Explosives
1010: Other Safety Rules 1150: Materials Handling & Storage
(1013: Hazardous Workplace)
1020: Registration 1160: Boilers
1030: Training and Accreditation of Personnel 1170: Unfired Pressure Vessels
in OSH
1040: Health and Safety Committee 1200: Machine Guarding
1050: Notification & Keeping of Records of 1210: Electrical Safety
Accidents and/ or Occupational Illnesses
1060: Premises of Establishments 1220: Elevators & Related Equipment
1070: OH and Environmental Control 1230: Identification of Piping System
1080: Personal Protective Equipment & 1410: Construction Safety
1090: Hazardous Materials 1420: Logging
1100: Gas and Electric Welding and Cutting 1940: Fire Protection and Control
1120: Hazardous Work Processes 1950: Pesticides and Fertilizers
1960: Occupational Health Services
1970: Fees
1980: Authority of Local Government
• 1991 – False Statement or Representation
• 1992 – Separability
• 1993 – Resolution of Conflicts and Overlapping Jurisdiction
• 1994 – Repeal of Prior Safety Orders
• 1995 – Penal Provisions
• 1996 – Effectivity
• Red – Fire Protection (fire stations and equipment; fire
extinguishing systems, fire protection materials, etc.)
• Green – Safety (location of first aid equipment, safety
bulletin boards, etc.)
• White, black, or a combination of both – traffic (such
as location and width of aisle ways and dead ends,
stairways) and housekeeping marking (location of
refuse cans, drinking fountains
• Yellow – designates caution and for marking physical
• Orange – Alert. To designate dangerous parts of
• Blue – Precaution. (example: MEN AT WORK, UNDER
• Purple – Radiation. To designate hazards, Yellow is
used in combination with purple for markers such as
tags, labels, signs and floor markers.
OSHA’s mission can be summarized as follows:
• Encourage employers and employees to reduce
workplace hazards
• Implement new safety and health programs and
improve them further
• Encourage research that will lead to innovative ways
of dealing with workplace safety and health
• Establish the rights of employees and employers
regarding the improvement of workplace safety and
• Monitor job-related illnesses and injuries through a
system of reporting and record keeping
• Establish training programs to increase the number of
safety and health professionals and to improve their
competence continually
• Establish mandatory workplace safety and health
standards and enforce those standards
• Provide, monitor, analyze, and evaluate the
development and approval of state-level workplace
safety and health programs
• Persons who are self-employed
• Family farms that employ only immediate family
• Federal agencies covered by other federal statutes
• Coal mines (coal mines are regulated by mining-
specific laws)
• Fire protection
• Electricity
• Sanitation
• Air quality
• Machine use, maintenance, and repair
• Posting of notices and warnings
• Reporting of accidents and illnesses
• Maintaining written compliance and programs
• Employee training
1. Occupational lung disease
2. Musculoskeletal injuries
3. Occupational cancers
4. Occupational cardiovascular disease
5. Severe occupational traumatic injuries
6. Disorders of reproduction
7. Neurotoxic disorders
8. Noise-induced hearing loss
9. Psychological disorders