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OPTIMIZATION

DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

jegarboso
GRAPH OF THE FUNCTION Y = F(X)
RELATIVE MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM
POINTS

At a point such as B, where the function is


algebraically greater than that of any neighboring
point, the point is said to have a maximum value,
and the point is called a maximum point (relative
to adjacent points). Similarly at D, the function
has a minimum value (relative to adjacent points).
At maximum or minimum points, the tangent is
horizontal or the slope is zero.
𝑑𝑥
= 𝑦′ = 0
𝑑𝑦
THE SECOND DERIVATIVE OF A
FUNCTION

• The second derivative of a function is the rate of change of the first derivative or
the rate of change of the slope. It follows that as x increases and y" is positive, y'
is increasing and the tangent turns in a counterclockwise direction and the curve
is concave upward. When y" is negative, y' decreases and the tangent turns in the
clockwise direction and the curve is concave downward.
𝐼𝑓 𝑦′ = 0 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑦 is negative (i.e. y < 0), 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑎 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 (𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑎𝑣𝑒 𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑤𝑎𝑟𝑑).
𝐼𝑓 𝑦′ = 0 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑦" 𝑖𝑠 𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 (𝑖. 𝑒. 𝑦" > 0), 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑎 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 (𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑎𝑣𝑒 𝑢𝑝𝑤𝑎𝑟𝑑).
SOLVING OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS

• Identify the constant, say cost of fencing.


• Identify the variable to be maximized or minimized, say area A.
• Express this variable in terms of the other relevant variable(s),
say A = f(x, y).
• If the function shall consist of more than one variable, expressed
it in terms of one variable (if possible and practical) using the
conditions in the problem, say A = f(x).
• Differentiate and equate to zero, dA/dx = 0.
SAMPLE PROBLEMS
PROBLEM 1

•What number exceeds its


square by the maximum
amount?
1/2
PROBLEM 2

• What should be the shape of a


rectangular field of a given area, if it
is to be enclosed by the least
amount of fencing?
SQUARE
PROBLEM 3

• A box is to be made of a piece of


cardboard 9 inches square by cutting
equal squares out of the corners and
turning up the sides. Find the volume
of the largest box that can be made in
this way.
54 IN^3
PROBLEM 4

•Find the rectangle of


maximum perimeter
inscribed in a given
circle.
SQUARE
PROBLEM 5

•From a strip of tin 14 inches a


trapezoidal gutter is to be made
by bending up the sides at an angle
of 45°. Find the width of the base
for greatest carrying capacity.
3.17 IN
PROBLEM 6

• Two posts, one 8 feet high and the other 12


feet high, stand 15 ft apart. They are to be
supported by wires attached to a single stake
at ground level. The wires running to the tops
of the posts. Where should the stake be placed,
to use the least amount of wire?
6 FT FROM SHORTER POST
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
•The sum of two positive numbers
is 2. Find the smallest value
possible for the sum of the cube
of one number and the square of
the other.
1.9354
• A rectangular lot is bounded at the back by a
river. No fence is needed along the river and
there is to be 24-ft opening in front. If the
fence along the front costs $1.50 per foot,
along the sides $1 per foot, find the dimensions
of the largest lot which can be thus fenced in
for $300.
84’ X 112’
•Find the shortest distance
from the point (5, 0) to
the curve 2y = x
2 3
SQRT 13
• A cylindrical can is to hold 20𝜋 𝑚3 of
water. The material for the top and
bottom costs $10/m2 and material for
the side costs $8/m2 Find the radius r
and height h of the most economical
can.
R=2
• A right circular cylinder of radius r and height h is inscribed in a right circular
cone of radius 6 m and height 12 m.

• Part 1: Determine the radius of the cylinder such that its volume is a
maximum.

• Part 2: Determine the height of the cylinder such that its lateral area is a
maximum.
R=4 M
H=6 M
•Find the area of the largest
right triangle whose
hypotenuse is fixed at c.
¼ C2