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BY: FRITZ JOSEPH FATIGA (OJT)

SCOPE OF PRESENTATION

APPLICABLE UAVS IN
DEFINITION
THE PN

BRIEF HISTORY OF BENEFITS OF UAVS IN


UAVS THE NAVY

IMPORTANCE TO
SUMMARY
MILITARY

CATEGORIES OF UAVS ADDITIONAL TOPICS


DEFINITION
UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV)
 UAV is defined as a self-propelled aircraft that sustains
flight through aerodynamic lift.
 It is designed to be returned and reused, and it does not
have a human on board.
 It excludes lighter-than-air craft such as balloons, blimps,
zeppelins or airships, and it rules out ballistic missiles, which do
not employ aerodynamic lift to achieve flight.
 Also, it excludes cruise missiles.
DEFINITION
UAS (UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEM)

• is the entire package needed to operate the system, which


includes the UAV itself, the ground control system, camera, GPS,
all the software, skills needed to operate the system and tools
required for maintenance.

• The term 'Unmanned Aerial Vehicle' was changed to 'Unmanned


Aircraft System' to reflect the fact that these complex systems
include ground stations and other elements besides the actual air
vehicles.
DEFINITION
An Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) has three components:
• COMMAND AND CONTROL includes the ground control
station (GCS), communication subsystem, launch and recovery,
and support equipment;
• UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) - includes the payload,
a navigation subsystem, sensors, a communication subsystem,
power and propulsion.
• DATALINK - establishes a communication link (uplink:
land-to-air, downlink: air-to-land) between the communication
subsystems of the ground control station and the vehicle.
BRIEF HISTORY OF UAVS
 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been around
for centuries and were solely used for military purposes
MONTGOLFIER BALLOON
• The Montgolfier brothers in France, were the first to
experiment with balloons in 1782. Montgolfier Balloon
The First Major American UAVs
• The forerunner of today’s UAV is reported to be the
American Navy Curtiss/Sperry “flying bomb“.
• followed by primitive cruise missile ‘Kettering Bug’. Kettering Bug
BRIEF HISTORY OF UAVS
WORLD WAR II
• Radioplane –OQ2, the remote-controlled aircraft developed by
Reginald Denny during World War II actually became the first
mass-produced UAV product in the U.S.
TARGET DRONE EVOLUTION
• In the post-World War II period, Radioplane followed up the
success of the OQ-2 target drone with another very successful
series of piston-powered target drones, what would become
known as the Basic Training Target (BTT) family.
BRIEF HISTORY OF UAVS
BATTLEFIELD UAVS
• Israel’s coordinated use of UAVs alongside manned aircraft allowed
the state to quickly destroy dozens of Syrian aircraft with minimal
losses.
• Israeli drones were used as electronic decoys, electronic jammers as
well as for real time video reconnaissance.
MINIATURE AND MICRO UAVS
• Another growth field in UAVs are miniature UAVs, ranging from "micro
aerial vehicles (MAVs)" and miniature UAVs that can be carried by an
infantryman to UAVs that can be carried and launched like an
infantry man-portable air-defense system.
IMPORTANCE TO MILITARY

 UAVs are potentially more effective and less costly than manned
aircraft because of the removal of the pilot and the associated life
support systems.
INTELLIGENCE, SURVEILLANCE AND RECONNAISSANCE
• UAVs have long loiter times, can be positioned flexibly near potential
targets, and are small and relatively difficult to detect.
• The long endurance of UAVs is particularly important for surveillance
when these operations could be conducted over days.
• The U.S. military in surveillance missions uses a number of UAVs.
IMPORTANCE TO MILITARY

TRANSPORTATION
• UAVs could transport cargo, especially in the relatively small
quantities that would apply in tactical situations.
• The current state of technology may be sufficient to create
remotely piloted or autonomous helicopters that are capable of
delivering supplies and ammunition to troops in the field, as long
as specific instructions and restrictions guide these UAVs.
IMPORTANCE TO MILITARY

COMBAT SUPPORT MISSIONS


• related idea to use UAVs for the electronic support operations that
are performed by strike aircraft and bombers, which involves
using UAVs in conjunction with aircraft to target and jam fire-
control radars.
• category of UAV could function as a decoy that duplicates the
radar, infrared, and radio signatures of fighter aircraft to increase
their survivability.
IMPORTANCE TO MILITARY
STRIKE UAVS OR UCAVS
Attack Fixed Targets
• The U.S. military has developed UAVs that demonstrated the
ability to launch weapons against air defense sites.
Attack Mobile Targets
• The concept of attacking mobile targets with UAVs
Air-to-Air Combat
• In the foreseeable future, technology will permit UAVs to
conduct offensive and defensive combat operations against
aircraft, cruise missiles, and ballistic missiles.
CATEGORIES OF UAVS

 UAVs have been designed to cover a wide spectrum of tasks, from line
of sight flights of several minutes duration in direct support of ground
troops, to flights of several days duration many thousands of
kilometers away from the launch and control sites.
Micro UAVS (MAV)
• The emergent field of micro UAVs represents the smallest class of
vehicle.
• Mainly used for surveillance
• The small mass would limit possible payloads to simple cameras or
communications relay devices, and the like.
CATEGORIES OF UAVS
• Development is driven by commercial, research, government, and
military purposes; with insect-sized aircraft reportedly expected
in the future.
• The small craft allows remote observation of hazardous
environments inaccessible to ground vehicles.
BLACK HORNET NANO
• is a military micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) used by soldiers
from the UK's Brigade Reconnaissance Force at Camp Bastion in
Afghanistan.

Black Hornet UAV


CATEGORIES OF UAVS
Tactical UAVs
• is basically responsible for surveillance as well as reconnaissance
missions.
• are heavier UAVs (from 150 to 1,500 kilograms) that fly at higher
altitudes (from 3,000 to 8,000 meters) and are currently used primarily
to support military applications.
Tactical UAVs can be divided into six subcategories:
Close range Short range,
Medium range Long range,
Endurance Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE)
CATEGORIES OF UAVS

The Philippine Air Force (PAF) acquired 6


ScanEagle UAVs.
• These are reconnaissance drones that
could enhance operations of the
military's ground, air, and naval forces.
through a foreign military financing
grant from the United States (US).
ScanEagle UAVs
CATEGORIES OF UAVS
Endurance UAVs / Strategic UAVs
• are systems designed to operate at
medium to high altitudes with multimission
payloads, and endurance exceeding
24 hours. RQ–4A Global Hawk

Global Hawk
• used as a high-altitude platform covering the
spectrum of intelligence collection capability to
support forces in worldwide military operations.
APPLICABLE UAVS IN THE PN

CLASS I (< 150 KG): MICRO, MINI OR SMALL DRONES

• A good example of a micro drones in Class I is the FULMAR


fixed wing micro-UAV which has a maximum takeoff weight of
about 20 kg
• it has an endurance of 12 hours and a range of about 90km.
• this drone is usually launched by a small catapult with a
recovery net and it can be deployed from the land or from a
ship’s deck.
APPLICABLE UAVS IN THE PN

CLASS II (150-600 KG ): TACTICAL


• The tactical UAVs are specially designed to be used in the
organic battalion level or in Special Forces as assets for
purposes of medium range surveillance.
• They have been of use in situation analysis and awareness, to
offer protection and surveillance besides being used in target
acquisition and the assessment of some damage to a given
force.
BENEFITS OF UAVS IN THE NAVY
 Inmilitary environments, the advantage of using the operating
capability UAVs provide, can be demonstrated through a variety
of missions and tasks that UAVs can perform.
• Intelligence and reconnaissance • Mine countermeasures
• Anti-submarine Warfare • Inspection/identification
• Oceanography/hydrography; • Communication
• Navigation • Payload delivery
• Enemy Influence Activities • Time critical strike
• Maritime Security • Surface Warfare
BENEFITS OF UAVS IN THE NAVY

• Special Operations Forces Support • Electronic Warfare


• Maritime Interdiction Operations Support • Aerial Warfare
• Transport cargo or passengers • Extraction
• Insertion • Surveillance
• Search and rescue • Analysis of damage attack
• Border patrol.
SUMMARY
• Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) use is growing, and is
expected to continue growing substantially in the near future
• Because of this dramatic growth, multiple organizations have
recognized the need for research in multiple areas of UAS
operation, including communications, navigation, and
surveillance.
• The creation and development of UAVs has provided an
opportunity for worldwide military entities to extend their
operational capability while performing a number of different
tasks and missions.
REFERRENCES

• https://www.theuav.com/
• https://www.jurovichsurveying.com.au/faq/difference-uav-uas
• http://www.draganfly.com/blog/a-short-history-of-unmanned-aerial-vehicles-uavs/
• Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Implications for Military Operations David Glade, Lt Col,
USAF July 2000
• A REVIEW OF TACTICAL UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE DESIGN STUDIES by Sezer
Coban
• http://mydronelab.com/blog/types-of-military-drones.html
• UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS IN MILITARY ENVIRONMENTS: THE BENEFITS OF
INTEROPERABILITY by Rodolfo Santos ,CARAPAU1 Alexandre, Valério
RODRIGUES,Mario Monteiro MARQUES, Victor LOBO,
• http://www.danofficeit.com/uav-drone/uav-technology.aspx
Additional Topics
CLASSIFICATION OF UAVS

UCAV - stands for unmanned combat aerial vehicles. This


category contains aircraft that are highly maneuverable and are
able to engage in air to air combat and also provide precision
weapon delivery to surface targets.

UCAV – MB1 B Predator


CLASSIFICATION OF UAVS
UCAV
• An unmanned combat aerial vehicle is an UAV equipped for
striking targets.
• It was develop in order to reduce the risk of the human pilots
being behind enemy lines.
• UCAVs can be approached both as unmanned fighters and as
glorified cruise missiles.
• Combat UAVs have been successfully used in battle in
Afghanistan, Pakistan, Yemen and many other battlefields.
CLASSIFICATION OF UAVS
ISTAR
ISTAR - is a system using UAVs to gather enemy information,
locate target and petrol hostile air space.
• ISTAR stands for information, surveillance, target acquisition,
and reconnaissance.
• ISTAR is a practice that links sensors functions together in order
to enhance battlefield functions in order to assist the combat
force and manage the information collected.
CLASSIFICATION OF UAVS
Multi-purpose UAVs
• are a combination of ISTAR and Combat UAVs. The complexity of the
system is an engineering challenge that was launched in 2002 by the
US army.
• are usually modified reconnaissance UAVs that are weaponized.
• Their primary mission is usually interdiction and conducting armed
reconnaissance against critical, perishable targets. These UAVs can
also and strike using self-guided weapons.
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON FUNCTIONS
• Target and decoy UAVs – these can be used to provide ground
as well as aerial gunnery at a target which simulates an enemy
missile or aircraft.
• Reconnaissance UAVs – these are used to provide intelligence
at the battlefield.
• Combat UAVs – have been used to provide attack capability for
some high-risk missions.
• Research and Development UAVs – have been used to further
develop UAV technologies that can be integrated into UAVs that
have been deployed in the field.
• Civil and Commercial UAVs – these are those that have been
designed to be used in civil and commercial applications.
TYPES OF DRONES
MULTI-ROTOR
• Multi-Rotors are capable of the full range
of flight requirements from fast paced
FPV racing to smooth aerial photography
to fully autonomous complex missions
Multi-Rotor UAVs
which can be programmed in advanced
FIXED-WING
• use a wing like a normal aeroplane to
provide the lift rather than vertical lift
rotors.

Fixed Wing UAV


TYPES OF DRONES
SINGLE-ROTOR HELICOPTER
• single rotor has just one, plus a tail rotor to
control its heading.
• A single-rotor helicopter has the benefit of much
greater efficiency over a multi-rotor, and also that
they can be powered by a gas motor for even Single-Rotor UAV

longer endurance.
Fixed-Wing Hybrid VTOL
• Merging the benefits of fixed-wing UAVs with the
ability to hover, is a new category of hybrids
which can also take off and land vertically. Fixed-Wing Hybrid
UAV