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आधुनिक राज्य के उद्भव

 WAR AND MILITARISM (युद्ध और सैन्यवाद)

 STATES AND CAPITALISM (राज्ययों और पोंजीवाद)

 LEGITIMIZED AUTHORITY (वैध प्रानधकरण)


 Necessity to strengthen the power-base of the
state
 Organizing the means of coercion (armies, navies
and other forms of military might)
 Using financial resources to meet military
expenditures
 States became increasingly militaristic owing to the
feeling of mutual insecurity (security dilemma)
 Extraction of resources of all kinds( humanpower,
weapons, foodstuffs, taxes, etc)
 Strengthening the state administrative and
bureaucratic apparatus
Charles Tilly :
‘War and its financial burdens promoted
‘territorial consolidation, centralization,
differentiation of the instruments of government
and monopolization of the means of coercion’
 The social structure of societies (social classes and
groups) and their relations to the state
 Demands of war and dependence on support of
subjects -> raising awareness of membership in a
‘political community’ -> generation of feelings of
nationalism -> formation of representative and
democratic institutions
 A shift from subject-soldier to citizen-soldier
 Geographical explorations influenced by naval
military power and the discovery of new lands
and acquisition of Non-European lands to
satisfy commercial interests.
 A wide-ranging military and economic base
was gained with the founding of the new
territorial lands.
 Degradation of the Non-European civilizations
and the ‘Drain of Wealth’ from the colonies
 Acquisition and seizure of new terrains->
extraction of native resources-> industrial
revolution-> expanding trade and commerce-
> emerging market economy
 Formation of industrial capitalism ( a shift
from world-empires to world-economies)
 Interconnection between ‘market relations’
and ‘class relations’
 An alliance between modern capitalism and
the emergent modern state (between rising
capitalist classes and political rulers)
Two important concerns :
1) Nature of SOVEREIGNTY
2) Nature of POLITICAL AUTHORITY

 Linking these to examine the nature of state


power and state rule
 Linking these to evaluate the extent of
legitimacy of the state
THOMAS HOBBES – AN ALL JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU-
POWERFUL ABSOLUTE SOVEREIGN THE GENERAL WILL
JOHN LOCKE- A LIMITED
CONSTITUONAL DEMOCRATIC JOHN STUART MILL – A
GOVERNMENT BASED ON FIDUCIARY REPRSENTATIVE DEMOCRATIC
RELATIONSHIP GOVERNMENT
KARL MARX AND FREDERICK
ENGELS- STATE AS AN MAX WEBER – STATE AS A MONOPOLY
EXTENSION OF ECONOMIC AND OF VIOLENCE AND FORCE
SOCIAL RELATIONS
I THANK YOU FOR
YOUR
COOPERATION