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GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN: EAG346

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION


OF DEEP EXCAVATION (1)
Assoc. Prof. Dr Mohd Ashraf Mohamad Ismail
WHY IS DEEP EXCAVATION ?

A deep excavation is an
excavation in soil or rock
typically more than 15 ft
(4.5m) deep. Deep
excavations require careful
design & planning
especially when
constructed in urban
areas. Retaining wall and
support system selection in
deep excavations can have
significant impact on time
cost and performance.
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TERMINOLOGY: DEEP EXCAVATION

• SHORING: props used to support or hold


something weak or unstable

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WHY WE NEED DEEP EXCAVATION ?

Launching Shaft for TBM Tunnel


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WHY WE NEED DEEP EXCAVATION ?

Unique
caterpillar-shaped
launching shaft
was formed using
a diaphragm wall,
eliminating the
use of strutting
which maximized
both cost and
operational

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WHY WE NEED DEEP EXCAVATION ?

Cochrane Station from where four Kami Memimpin We Lead


Herrenknecht VD TBMs were launched
WHY WE NEED DEEP EXCAVATION ?

6
underground
parking
levels for
skyscrapers
in Toronto,
Canada.

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STAGED CONSTRUCTION
• Deep excavation always required staged
construction
• Even wall performance can affect
performance
• Start from at rest conditions (or before)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AVErbmOz_jc

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CUT AND COVER FOR UNDERGROUND
METRO STATION

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CUT AND COVER CONSTRUCTION
METHOD

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CUT AND COVER CONSTRUCTION
METHOD

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CUT AND COVER CONSTRUCTION
METHOD

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VIRTUAL SITE VISIT
• KLCC Mixed Development Substructure – Package 1
• Package 1 : Proposed Construction and Completion of
North East Car Park (NEC) Underneath KLCC Park and
Associated Works for The Proposed Lot 185, Lot (K) and
Lot 176 Mixed Development at Persiaran KLCC. Contract
Value : RM 304,000,000.00 Client : Cititower Sdn Bhd
Commencement Date : 10-July-2013 Scope of Works : -
GFA = 113,691.00m2 - Top down construction -
Excavation Works - Installation of Diaphragm Wall -
Foundation and Piling Works - Construction of Six Levels of
Basement Car Park - Other Associated Works

• Gross floor area (GFA) - The total floor area contained


within the building measured to the external face of the
external walls.

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KLCC MIXED DEVELOPMENT
SUBSTRUCTURE – PACKAGE 1

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KLCC MIXED DEVELOPMENT
SUBSTRUCTURE – PACKAGE 1

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KLCC MIXED DEVELOPMENT
SUBSTRUCTURE – PACKAGE 1

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ISSUES:
• Soil / Rock Properties
• Adjacent structure condition and loads
• Design water levels
• Select appropriate earth retention system
• Examine possible failure modes
• Analysis methods
• Design building code compliance
• Minimize deformations (wall, surface etc)
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UNDERSTANDING THE EARTH MATERIALS
As questions about
the earth materials
that will be
excavated
• What ?
• Where ?
• When?
• How ?

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SOIL BEHAVIOR AND MECHANISM IN
EXCAVATIONS
Before and After
σ‘v

Ko σ‘v
Before and After

σ‘v
Ka?
σ‘vf

Ko
Compression Kp?
Tension

Shear Kami Memimpin We Lead


SOIL SHEAR STRENGTH
Every soil takes its path or stress path that is
 Stress path
 Tension strengths < compression
 Different response between sands and clays

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CLAY
• Clays are like sponges, they have absorbed so
much water and they do not want to let it out.
• Clays are low in permeability
• They resist changes in their state of stress
• When we excavate in clay, they are building up
negative pore water pressures
• Over time these negative pressures go away

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SITE INVESTIGATION
• Importance of site visit
• Relevant information (historic, geologic, etc)
• Code requirement
• Required tests (insitu-lab)
• Go beyond normal SPT value
• Determine and monitor groundwater levels and
its changes
• Identify depth of investigations requests
• Realistic conservative estimates
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BOREHOLE DEPTHS AND LOCATIONS
• Critical locations
• Next to buildings or structures
• Extend beyond excavation (1.5 x Hexc)
• 3m in rock at least
• Minimum code requirements (so far no specific
code between borehole distances)

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USEFUL TIPS
• A little cohesion goes a long way
• Be considerate of soil variability
• Look out for special variability
• Look out for problematic soils (clay lenses, soft
organics, etc)
• Draw soil cross section along the excavation
• Use geophysics methods for spatial subsurface
characterization if needed

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ISSUES:
• Soil / Rock Properties
• Adjacent structure condition and loads
• Design water levels
• Select appropriate earth retention system
• Examine possible failure modes
• Analysis methods
• Design building code compliance
• Minimize deformations (wall, surface etc)
Kami Memimpin We Lead
ISSUES:
• Soil / Rock Properties
• Adjacent structure condition and loads
• Design water levels
• Select appropriate earth retention system
• Examine possible failure modes
• Analysis methods
• Design building code compliance
• Minimize deformations (wall, surface etc)
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GROUND WATER CONTROL

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GROUND WATER CONTROL

Cut off wall Kami Memimpin We Lead


GROUND WATER CONTROL

Dewatering Kami Memimpin We Lead


GROUND WATER CONTROL

Ground freezing

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WALL SYSTEMS
A wall is the main structural system that provides
earth retaining support. With the exception of
cantilever walls and some circular shafts most
wall require bracing
 Temporary/permanent
 Drilled / cast-in place / driven / soil mix
 Flexible / rigid
 Watertight / permeable

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WALL SYSTEMS

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SOLDIER PILE AND LAGGING WALLS

http://www.haywardbaker.com/solutio
ns/techniques/soldier-piles-lagging
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SOLDIER PILE AND LAGGING WALLS

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SHEET PILES / COMBINED WALLS

http://www.haywardbaker.com/solutio
ns/techniques/sheet-piles
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SHEET PILES / COMBINED WALLS

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SECANT / TANGENT PILES

In this technique primary piles are installed first


while secondary piles constructed in between
primary piles when it gained some strength
http://www.haywardbaker.com/solutio
ns/techniques/secant-or-tangent-piles Kami Memimpin We Lead
SECANT / TANGENT PILES

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SLURRY WALLS/SOIL MIXING

Slurry walls are


constructed
using a
bentonite or
cement-
bentonite
slurry to
stabilize the
trench during
excavation.

http://www.haywardbaker.com/solutio
ns/techniques/slurry-walls Kami Memimpin We Lead
SUPPORT SYSTEMS
Support provide lateral bracing for walls
• Temporary / permanent
• Active or passive
• Internal or external

Internal/ Temporary/
Type Pre-stressed
external permanent
Tiebacks Yes External Both
Steel struts Sometime Internal Temporary
Deadman No External Both
Rackers/heelblocks No Internal Temporary
Top/down No Internal Permanent
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SUPPORT SYSTEMS

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TIEBACKS (GROUND ANCHORS)

• Angle inclination
• Locate beyond active wedge (below
excavation, +0.1 to 0.2 Hexc ;excavation depth)
• Design life / corrosion
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• Stress relaxation with time


POTENTIAL FAILURE CONDITIONS TO BE CONSIDERED IN
DESIGN OF GROUND ANCHORED WALLS

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POTENTIAL FAILURE CONDITIONS TO BE CONSIDERED IN
DESIGN OF GROUND ANCHORED WALLS

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CONTRIBUTION OF GROUND ANCHORS
TO WALL STABILITY

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STEEL STRUTS
• Cross-lot or internal bracing transfers the lateral
earth (and water pressures) between opposing
walls through compressive struts
• Typically the struts are either pipe or I- beam
sections and are usually preloaded to provide a
very stiff system. Installation of the bracing struts
is done by excavating soil locally around the
strut and only continuing the excavation once
preloading is complete
• The struts rest on a series of wale beams that
distribute the strut load to the diaphragm wall

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STEEL STRUTS

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STEEL STRUTS

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DEEP EXCAVATION FAILURE

• Causes of failure in open deep excavation


• Causes o failure in braced deep excavation

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DEEP EXCAVATION FAILURE

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BASAL HEAVE

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TOE STABILITY

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EXCESSIVE MOVEMENTS

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CAUSES OF FAILURE IN OPEN DEEP
EXCAVATION
• Site investigation is conducted insufficiently which
lead to overestimated design assumptions of soil,
rock strength, and groundwater condition. The
ramification of this error would be inadequate
dewatering, possibly excessive deformation of soil.
These will undermine the safety of excavation and
eventually could lead to failure.
• Poor understanding of the designer regarding
settlement susceptibility of neighboring buildings
and services. This would increase the load on the soil
support structure and cause failure.
• Another factor is the misunderstanding of both
designer and constructor about the influence of
time and weathering on soil strength. This could lead
to excessive deformation of soil and soil support
structure and subsequent failure of the excavation.
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CAUSES O FAILURE IN BRACED DEEP
EXCAVATION
• Site investigation is conducted insufficiently which lead to optimistic design assumptions of
soil and rock homogeneity, groundwater condition, and soil and rock fabric strength.

• Poor quality of structural detailing

• Poor communication between the designer and constructor

• Insufficient understanding of the designer about the limitations of specific techniques used
to support excavation wall for example anchoring and diaphragm wall.

• Misunderstanding of the designer about the effect of deflections of soil support structure
and retained soil deformations.

• Variations in loading from natural conditions for instance waves, groundwater, tidal, and
temperature. These will lead to excavation failure unless the constructor has adequate
knowledge about the result of these variations.

• Poor workmanship in the temporary works of the project site

• Finally, overloading of soil support structure as a result of loads of temporary plants.


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KÖLN - SPECULATION AND ANGER IN
AFTERMATH
• https://www.tunneltalk.com/Cologne-collapse-
Mar09-Deadly-collapse-in-Cologne.php

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ASSIGNMENT 1(A)
• Case Histories of Failure of Deep Excavation.
Examination of Where Things Went Wrong:
Nicoll Highway Collapse, Singapore

Overview:
https://video.toggle.sg/en/video/clips/heroes-
hd/webisodes/nicoll-highway-heroes-webisode-
3/391444
More references in PDF

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ASSIGNMENT 1(A)
• Write in 2 pages the with the help of sketches
on the reasons of the Nicoll Highway Collapsed
triggered by the deep excavation failure
• Submission 21/3/2018
• Handwritten format.

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THANK YOU