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# University of Palestine

Engineering Hydraulics
2nd semester 2010-2011

CHAPTER 2:
1
Flow through single &combined Pipelines
Flow through single &combined Pipelines

Content
Pipelines in series & parallel

## Branching pipe systems

 Power in pipelines

2
Flow through single &combined Pipelines

Part A
Pipelines in series & parallel
Pipelines with negative
pressure
3
Introduction

## Any water conveying system may include the

following elements:
• pipes (in series, pipes in parallel)
• elbows
• valves
• other devices.
• If all elements are connected in series, The
arrangement is known as a pipeline.

4
Introduction

## How to solve flow problems

• Calculate the total head loss (major and minor)
using the methods of chapter 2
• Apply the energy equation (Bernoulli’s equation)

## This technique can be applied for different systems.

5
Introduction
Flow Through A Single Pipe (simple
pipe flow)
• A simple pipe flow: It is a
• flow takes place in one pipe
• having a constant diameter
• with no branches.

and so on.

6
Introduction
(2)

(1)

7
Introduction
(2)

## To solve such system:

(1)
• Apply Bernoulli’s equation

V12
P1 P2 V22
  z1    z 2  hL  h p
 2g  2g
• where
fL V 2 V2
hL  h f  hm     KL
D 2g 2g
For the same material and constant diameter (same f , same V) we can write:

V 2  fLTotal 
hL  h f  hm     KL 
2g  D 
8
Introduction

Example 1
• Determine the difference in the elevations between the water surfaces in
the two tanks which are connected by a horizontal pipe of diameter 30 cm
and length 400 m. The rate of flow of water through the pipe is 300
liters/sec. Assume sharp-edged entrance and exit for the pipe. Take the
value of f = 0.032. Also, draw the HGL and EGL.

Z1 Z

9
Introduction

## Compound Pipe flow

• When two or more pipes with different diameters
are connected together head to tail (in series) or
connected to two common nodes (in parallel)

## The system is called compound pipe flow

10
Flow Through Pipes in Series

## • pipes of different lengths and different diameters

connected end to end (in series) to form a pipeline

11
Flow Through Pipes in Series

## Q  A1V1  A2V2  A3V3

• Head loss: The difference in liquid surface levels is equal to the sum
of the total head loss in the pipes:
PA V A2 PB VB2
  zA    z B  hL
 2g  2g
12
Flow Through Pipes in Series

z A  z B  hL  H

PA V A2 PB VB2
  zA    z B  hL
 2g  2g

Where
3 4
hL   h fi   hmj
i 1 j 1

3
Li Vi 2 V12 V22 V22 V32
hL   f i  K ent  Kc  K enl  K exit
i 1 Di 2 g 2g 2g 2g 2g
13
Flow Through Pipes in Series

Pipelines in Series

Q  Q1  Q2  Qn
hL  hL1  hL 2  ....hLn

14
Flow Through Pipes in Series
Example 2
• Two new cast-iron pipes in series connect two reservoirs. Both pipes are
300 m long and have diameters of 0.6 m and 0.4 m, respectively.
• The elevation of water surface in reservoir A is 80 m. The discharge of
10o C water from reservoir A to reservoir B is 0.5 m3/sec.
• Find the elevation of the surface of reservoir B.
• Assume a sudden contraction at the junction and a square-edge entrance.

15
Flow Through Parallel Pipes

## • If a main pipe divides into two or more branches and again

join together downstream to form a single pipe, then the
branched pipes are said to be connected in parallel
(compound pipes).

n
Q   Qi
i 1

## hL  hL1  hL 2  hL3  ....hLn

16
Flow Through Parallel Pipes
Q1, L1, D1, f1

## Q3, L3, D3, f3

• Discharge:
3
Q  Q1  Q2  Q3   Qi
i 1

• Head loss: the head loss for each branch is the same

hL  h f 1  h f 2  h f 3
L1 V12 L2 V22 L3 V32
f1  f2  f3
D1 2 g D2 2 g D3 2 g
17
Flow through single &combined Pipelines
Example 3:
Determine the flow in each pipe and the flow in the main pipe if Head loss
between A & B is 2m & f=0.01

Solution
hf 1  hf 2  2 f
L2 V22
. 2
L1 V12 D2 2 g
f . 2
D1 2 g 30 V22
0.01 
25 V12 0.05 2  9.81
0.01  2 V2  2.557 m/s
0.04 2  9.81
V1  2.506 m/s π
Q2  0.052  2.557  5.02 10 3 m3 /s
π 4
Q1  V1 A1  0.042  2.506  3.15 103 m3 /s Q  Q1  Q2  8.1718 10 3 m 3 /s
4
Flow through single &combined Pipelines
Example 4
The following figure shows pipe system from cast iron steel. The main pipe
diameter is 0.2 m with length 4m at the end of this pipe a Gate Valve is
fixed as shown. The second pipe has diameter 0.12m with length 6.4m, this
pipe connected to two bends R/D = 2.0 and a globe valve. Total Q in the
system = 0.26 m3/s at T=10oC. Determine Q in each pipe at fully open
valves.

19
Flow through single &combined Pipelines
Solution
2
 0.2 
Aa  π    0.0314 m
2

 2 
2
 0.12 
Ab  π    0.0113 m
2

 2 

Q  Q1  Q2
0.26 m3  AaVa  AbVb  0.0314Va  0.0113Vb

ha  hb
2 2 2
 20.19 
2 2 Lb Vb Vb Vb
La Va Va hb  f b  10
ha  f a  0.15 Db 2 g 2g 2g
Da 2 g 2g
20
Flow through single &combined Pipelines
  4   Va   6.4   Vb
2 2

 a  0.2 
f  0.15 
 2 g  b  0.12 
f  0.38  10  2g
       

f a  0.0185
20 f a  0.15Va 2
 53.33 fb  10.38Vb
2
f b  0.0255

Va  4.719 Vb

## Va  7.693 m/s Qa  AaVa  0.03147.693  0.242 m3 /s

Vb  1.630 m/s Qb  AbVb  0.01131.630  0.018 m3 /s 21
Flow through single &combined Pipelines

Example 5
Determine the flow rate in each pipe (f=0.015)
Also, if the two pipes are replaced with one pipe of the same length
determine the diameter which give the same flow.

22
Flow through single &combined Pipelines

23
Flow through single &combined Pipelines

24
Flow through single &combined Pipelines
Group work Example
• Four pipes connected in parallel as shown. The following details
are given:

1 200 200 0.020
2 300 250 0.018
3 150 300 0.015
4 100 200 0.020

## • If ZA = 150 m , ZB = 144m, determine the discharge in

each pipe ( assume PA=PB = Patm)

25
Flow through single &combined Pipelines
Group work Example
Two reservoirs with a difference in water levels of 180 m and are connected
by a 64 km long pipe of 600 mm diameter and f of 0.015. Determine the
discharge through the pipe. In order to increase this discharge by 50%,
another pipe of the same diameter is to be laid from the lower reservoir for
part of the length and connected to the first pipe (see figure below).
Determine the length of additional pipe required.

=180m
QN QN1

QN2

26
Pipe line with negative Pressure

(siphon phenomena)

## • Long pipelines laid to transport water from one reservoir to

another over a large distance usually follow the natural contour of
the land.
• A section of the pipeline may be raised to an elevation that is
above the local hydraulic gradient line (siphon phenomena) as
shown:

27
Pipe line with negative Pressure
(siphon phenomena)

Definition:
It is a long bent pipe which is used to transfer liquid
from a reservoir at a higher elevation to another reservoir at a
lower level when the two reservoirs are separated by a hill or
high ground

## Occasionally, a section of the pipeline may be raised

to an elevation that is above the local HGL.

28
Pipe line with negative Pressure
Siphon happened in the following cases:
• To carry water from one reservoir to another reservoir
separated by a hill or high ground level.
• To take out the liquid from a tank which is not having
outlet
• To empty a channel not provided with any outlet
sluice.

29
Pipe line with negative Pressure
Characteristics of this system
• Point “S” is known as the summit.
• All Points above the HGL have pressure less than
atmospheric (negative value)
• If the absolute pressure is used then the
atmospheric absolute pressure = 10.33 m
• It is important to maintain pressure at all points (
above H.G.L.) in a pipeline above the vapor
pressure of water (not be less than zero Absolute )

30
Pipe line with negative Pressure
A S

2 2
VA PA VS PS
  ZA    Z S  hL
2g  2g 
2
VS PS
Z A  ZS    hL
2g 

## -ve value Must be -ve value ( below the atmospheric pressure)

Negative pressure exists in the pipelines wherever the pipe line is raised above the31
hydraulic gradient line (between P & Q)
Pipe line with negative Pressure

## The negative pressure at the summit point can reach

theoretically
-10.3 m water head (gauge pressure) and zero (absolute
pressure)
But in the practice water contains dissolved gasses that
will vaporize before -10.3 m water head which reduces
the pipe flow cross section.
Generally, this pressure reach to -7.6m water head
(gauge pressure) and 2.7m (absolute pressure)

32
Pipe line with negative Pressure
Example 1
Siphon pipe between two pipe has diameter of 20cm and length
500m as shown. The difference between reservoir levels is 20m.
The distance between reservoir A and summit point S is 100m.
Calculate the flow in the system and the pressure head at summit.
f=0.02

33
Pipe line with negative Pressure
Solution

34
Pipe line with negative Pressure

Pumps
• Pumps may be needed in a pipeline to lift water from a
lower elevation or simply to boost the rate of flow.
Pump operation adds energy to water in the pipeline by

## • The computation of pump installation in a pipeline is

usually carried out by separating the pipeline system
into two sequential parts, the suction side and discharge
side.

35
Pipe line with negative Pressure

H P  H R  H s  hL

## Pumps design will be

discussed in details in
next chapters

36
Flow through single &combined Pipelines

Part B

## Branching pipe systems

37
Branching pipe systems
Branching in pipes occur when water is brought by pipes to
a junction when more than two pipes meet.
This system must simultaneously satisfy two basic conditions:
1 – the total amount of water brought by pipes to a junction must equal
to that carried away from the junction by other pipes.
Q  0
2 – all pipes that meet at the junction must share the same pressure at
the junction. Pressure at point J = P

38
Branching pipe systems
How we can demonstrate the hydraulics of branching
pipe System??
by the classical three-reservoirs problem

Three-reservoirs problem
(Branching System)
39
Branching pipe systems

## This system must satisfy:

1) The quantity of water brought to junction “J” is equal
to the quantity of water taken away from the junction:
Q3 = Q1 + Q 2 Flow Direction????

## 2) All pipes that meet at junction “J” must share the

same pressure at the junction. 40
Branching pipe systems

## Consider a case where three reservoirs are connected by

a branched-pipe system.
There are two types of Branching pipe problem:

Type 1:
• given the lengths , diameters, and materials of all pipes involved;
D1 , D2 , D3 , L1 , L2 , L3 , and e or f
• given the water elevation in each of the three reservoirs,
Z1 , Z 2 , Z 3
• determine the discharges to or from each reservoir,
Q1 , Q2 ,and Q3 .

## This types of problems are most conveniently

41
solved by trail and error
Branching pipe systems

## • First assume a piezometric surface elevation, P , at the junction.

• This assumed elevation gives the head losses hf1, hf2, and hf3
• From this set of head losses and the given pipe diameters, lengths, and
material, the trail computation gives a set of values for discharges Q1 , Q2
,and Q3 .
• If the assumed elevation P is correct, the computed Q’s should satisfy:
 Q  Q1  Q2  Q3  0
• Otherwise, a new elevation P is assumed for the second trail.
• The computation of another set of Q’s is performed until the above
condition is satisfied. 42
Branching pipe systems
Note:
• It is helpful to plot the computed trail values of P against .
• The resulting difference may be either plus or minus for each
trail.
• However, with values obtained from three trails, a curve may be
plotted as shown in the next example.

## The correct discharge is indicated by the intersection

of the curve with the vertical axis.

43
Branching pipe systems
Type 1:
The problem is to determine the discharge in each pipe and the
pressure head at the junction (point J). Four unknowns:
Q in each pipe and P at J
Given:
All pipes parameters
All Tanks elevation

## The solution based on:

1- Assuming the pressure at J and then estimate the value of
hf in each pipe
2- Calculate the flow in each pipe and check  Q
3- try the last procedure until  Q  0

44
Branching pipe systems
Example 1
In the following figure determine the flow in each pipe
Pipe CJ BJ AJ
Length m 2000 4000 1000
Diameter cm 40 50 30
f 0.022 0.021 0.024

45
Branching pipe systems
Example 1.cont.
Trial 1
ZP= 110m
Applying Bernoulli Equation between A , J :
2
L1 V1 1000 V12
Z A  Z P  f1 . 
 120  110  0.024  
D1 2 g 0.3 2 g
V1 = 1.57 m/s , Q1 = 0.111 m3/s

## Applying Bernoulli Equation between B , J :

2
L V 4000 V22
ZP  ZB  f2 2 . 2 
 110  100  0.021  
D2 2 g 0.5 2 g

## V2 = 1.08 m/s , Q2 = - 0.212 m3/s

46
Branching pipe systems
Example 1.cont.

## Applying Bernoulli Equation between C , J :

2
L3 V3 2000 V32
Z P  ZC  f3 . 
 110  80  0.022  
D3 2 g 0.4 2 g
V3 = 2.313 m/s , Q2 = - 0.291 m3/s

## Q  Q  Q1 2  Q3  0.111  0.212  0.291  0.392  0

47
Branching pipe systems
Trial 2
Example 1.cont.
ZP= 100m

/s0

Trial 3
ZP= 90m

##  Q  Q1  Q2  Q3  0.192  0.3  0.168  0.324 m 3

/s0
48
Branching pipe systems
Example 1.cont.
Draw the relationship between  Q and P

 Q  0  at P  99m

49
Branching pipe systems

Type 2:
• Given the lengths , diameters, and materials of all pipes involved;
D1 , D2 , D3 , L1 , L2 , L3 , and e or f

## • Given the water elevation in any two reservoirs,

Z1 and Z2 (for example)

## • Given the flow rate from any one of the reservoirs,

Q1 or Q2 or Q3

• Determine the elevation of the third reservoir Z3 (for example) and the rest of Q’s

## This types of problems can be solved by simply using:

• Bernoulli’s equation for each pipe
• Continuity equation at the junction. 50
Branching pipe systems
Type 2:
The problem is to determine the flow in two pipes and the
pressure head at the Junction J. Three unknown:
Q in two pipe and P at J
Given:
All pipes parameters
Q in a pipe
two Tanks elevation

## The solution based on:

1- Determine the pressure at J by calculate hf in pipe with
known Q
2- Estimate the value of hf in the other pipe
2- Calculate the flow in the other pipes
51
Branching pipe systems
Example 2
In the following figure determine the flow in pipe BJ & pipe CJ. Also,
determine the water elevation in tank C

52
Branching pipe systems
Example 2 cont.
Solution
Applying Bernoulli Equation between A , J :
Q1 0.06
V1    0.849 m/s
A1 π 0.32
4
2
L1 V1 1200 0.849 2
Z A  Z P  f1 .  40  Z P  0.024  
D1 2 g 0.3 2  9.81
Z P  36.475 m

## Applying Bernoulli Equation between B , J :

2 2
L 2 V2 600 V2
ZB  ZP  f 2 . 
 38  36.475  0.024  
D 2 2g 0.2 2  9.81
V2  0.645m/s 
 Q 2  0.0203 m 3 /s
53
Branching pipe systems
Example 2 cont.
Applying Bernoulli Equation between C , J :

Q  Q 1  Q2  Q3  0
Q3  Q1  Q2  0.06  0.0203  0.0803 m 3 / s

Q3 0.0803
V3    1.136 m / s
A3 
0.32
4
2 2
L3 V3 800 1.136
Z P  ZC  f3 . 
 36.475 - Zc  0.024  
D3 2 g 0.3 2g
Z c  32.265 m

54
Flow through single &combined Pipelines
Group Work 1
Find the flow in each pipe
f  0.01

hAB  hBC  10
QAB  QBC  QBD  0
2 2
QBC  QBD 0.01
2000 VAB
  0.01
1000 VAB
  10

0.4 2
V  2 
0.3 2
VAC 0.4 2g 0.3 2g
4 AB 4
2.55VAB  1.7 VBC  10
2 2
VAB  1.125 VAC
2.55  (1.125VBC )  0.816 VBC  10
VBC  2.2m / s  QBC  QBD  0.155m 3 / s
VAB  2.5m / s  QAB  0.31m 3 / s
55
Flow through single &combined Pipelines

Group Work 2
Determine the flow if
a) The valve is closed
b) The valve is open and the flow through the small pipe = 100L/S

56
Flow through single &combined Pipelines

Part C

## Power Transmission Through Pipes

57
Power Transmission Through Pipes

## • Power is transmitted through pipes by the water

(or other liquids) flowing through them.

## • The power transmitted depends upon:

(a) the weight of the liquid flowing through the pipe
(b) the total head available at the end of the pipe.

58
Power Transmission Through Pipes

pipe?

## • What is the condition for maximum

transmission of power?
59
Power Transmission Through Pipes
Total head (energy per unit weight) H of fluid is given by:
V2 P
H  Z
2g 
Energy Energy Weight
Power  x
time weight time
Weight
  gQ Q
time

Therefore:
Power   Q H
Units of power:
N . m/s = Watt
745.7 Watt = 1 HP (horse power) 60
Power Transmission Through Pipes

For the system shown in the figure, the following can be stated:

At Entrance  Power  γ Q H
Power dissipated due to friction  γ Q h f
Power dissipated due to minor loss  γ Q hm
At Exit  Power  γ Q H  h f  hm 
61
Power Transmission Through Pipes
Calculate the max transported power through pipe line
At Exit  P  γ Q H  h f  hm 
neglect minor loss
P  γ Q H  h f   Q  VA
 L V 3

P  γ π4 D  HV  f  
2

 D 2g 
dP  f L V 2

Max. at   0  γ π4 D  H  3.
2
. 
dV  D 2g 
f L V2
H  3. .  3 hf
D 2g
H
The max transported power through pipe line at hf 
3
 Power transmitted through a pipe is maximum when the loss of head due
1 62
to friction equal of the total head at the inlet
3
Power Transmission Through Pipes
Maximum Efficiency of Transmission of Power:
Efficiency of power transmission  is defined as

γQH  h f  hm 
Power available at the outlet
 H  h f  hm
Power supplied at the inlet η 
γQH H
H  hf H H
Q[ H  h f  hm ] [ H  h f  hm ] ηmax   3 100  66.67%
  H H
QH H
or
[H  h f ]
 (If we neglect minor losses)
H

## Maximum efficiency of power transmission occurs when H

hf 
3
H
[H  ]
  max  3  2  66.67% 63
H 3
Power Transmission Through Pipes

Example
Pipe line has length 3500m and Diameter 0.5m is used to transport
Power Energy using water. Total head at entrance = 500m. Determine
the maximum power at the Exit. F = 0.024

Pout  γ Q  H  h f 
H 500
Max. Power at  h f   m
3 3
V  3.417 m/s
L V2 3500 V 2
hf  f   0.024
D 2g 0.3 2 g

## Q  AV  π4 0.3 3.417  0.2415 m3 /s

2 64
Power Transmission Through Pipes

P  γQH  h f 

 H
 gQ  H  
 3

 gQ 23 H

 10009.810.2415 23 500

789785
 789785 N.m/s (Watt)   1059 HP
745.7 65