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Thermodynamic

Analysis
&
Enhancement of
Co-Generation Plant

By
Engineer Sher Khan Khoso
Introduction

• Sugarcane is an agricultural plus energy crop, this


energy is utilized in sugar mills as co-energy in form
of (Mechanical and thermal).
• Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP)
system was introduced in Mauritius in 1957.
• The main technical advantages of cogeneration
system are proper usage of energy, improve the
efficiency of power plant cycle and energy cost
saving as compared to separate generation.

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Introduction

• Basic components used in CHP plant are steam


generating unit, steam drives, condensers and
feed pump.
• Cogeneration evaluates the performance of each
unit, which unit has performed well, which unit
needs improvement.
• The thermodynamic calculation and rectification
measures are essential for performance
development and efficiency achievement of
cogeneration plant.
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Parameters used in Calculation

• Quantity & Quality of steam


• 1st & 2nd law of thermodynamic
• Enthalpy of steam
• Entropy of steam
• Isentropic process
• Adiabatic process
• T-S diagram
• Heat to power Ratio
• Thermal efficiency
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Cogeneration
• Sugar industries use large amount of heat & electric
power, so it is essential to develop such plant which
produce electricity, operate mills and provides energy
for sugar processing.
• Cogeneration provides better efficiency as compared to
separate power generation, overall energy conversion
efficiency of cogeneration is greater than 80%.
• Cogenerations also allow reduction of emission of green
house gases (mostly CO2 emission) per unit of energy
output.

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Rankine Cycle
• The model and
practical cycle for
vapor power cycles is
the Rankine cycle.
• The working fluid used
in Rankine cycle is
water
• The main component
used in this cycle as
shown in schematic
diagram .
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T-S Diagram

• T-S diagram represent


entropy temperature
diagram as shown in figure.
• 1-2 Isentropic compression
in a pump
• 2-3 Constant pressure heat
addition in a boiler
• 3-4 Isentropic expansion in
turbine
• 4-1 Constant pressure heat
rejection in condenser.

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Energy Analysis of Ideal Rankine
MSM Power Cycle
• In Matiari Sugar Mills, the co-generation plant having
maximum electric generating capacity is 9.5MW, Plant
utilization is about 4MW. Upgrading plant various
stages.

• The degree of superheated steam temperature raised


from 3250C to 3550C.

• Exhaust steam temperature of turbine reduced from


1700C to 1500C .

• Boiler feed water temperature increased up to 1300C by


adding economizer.
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Specifications of Power House
Shinko Turbine 5.5MW
# Description Quantity
1 Electric generation 4 MWH
2 Steam temperature 3500C
3 Steam pressure 24 bar G
4 Enthalpy of steam 3126 kj/kg
5 Exhaust steam temperature 1500C
6 Exhaust steam pressure 0.8 bar G
7 Enthalpy of Exhasut steam 2206 kj/kg
8 Condenser outlet temperature 1000C
9 Enthalpy of condensed vapors 418 kj/kg
10 Feed water temperature 1200C
11 Enthalpy of feed water 430 kj/kg
12 Steam consumption 11.5 kg/kwh
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Calculation of Ideal Rankine
Cycle Efficiency
• The thermal efficiency
of Rankine cycle is:

• The ideal Rankine


efficiency of MSM plant
is 34%. The standard
Rankine cycle efficiency
varies 30-45%.
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Calculation of Actual Rankine
Cycle
• The actual power cycle
differ from ideal
Rankine cycle due to
irreversibility’s in
various components ,
like fluid friction, heat
losses in boiler,
pipeline losses, steam
leakages, poor lagging
and insulation.

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Enhance Thermal Efficiency of
Fibrizer Turbine
• A large amount of energy utilize in sugar mill on cane
preparation and saving of energy on cane preparation
create a significant effect on overall factory output.
• During season 2016-17, a new 2.5 MW Shinko was
installed resulting reduction in steam consumption from
68kW/TFH to 62 kW/TFH.
• Thermal cycle efficiency raise up to 2% by decreasing the
exhaust steam temperature 300C and working area of
turbine increased.
• . 2017-18 2016-17 2015 – 16 2014 -15 2013 – 14
Nil Nil 04:05 99:35 18:50

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Enhance Thermal Efficiency of
Mill House Turbines
• During season 2017-18, all mill house turbines replaced
with new Shinko turbines capacity 650 kW, with efficient
double helical gear wheels and pinions.
• Overall performance of turbines found superbly.
• Thermal efficiency of turbines increased by 3% , by
Reducing exhaust steam temperature of turbines from
2300C to 2000C.
• Steam consumption of turbines decreases from 16
kg/kWH to 14 kg/kWH.
2017-18 2016-17 2015-16 2014 -15 2013 – 14
NIL 11 : 40 19 : 50 04 : 40 17 : 05
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How to increase the Efficiency of
Rankine cycle?
 The basic idea behind all the modifications to
increase the thermal efficiency of a power cycle is
same,
 Increase the average temperature at which heat is
transferred to the working fluid in the boiler
 Or decrease the average temperature at which
heat is rejected from the working fluid in the
condenser.
 Average fluid temperature should be high during
heat addition and as low as possible during heat
rejection 14
Simulation Modeling

• Software are helpful


– Creating and
optimizing new plant
design and modeling
existing designs
– To make detail flow
sheet of steam plant The well know software’s used in
– Detail of parameters in modeling of cogeneration sugar
running condition, plant are Aspen Plus, Thermoflex,
and maintain data using theoretic approach and
recorded. mathematical modeling.

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Conclusion

• Revision of thermodynamic analysis of


cogeneration plant is very essential
– Knowing individual performance of each unit
– To manage Energy and mass balance of plant
– To determine percentage of losses and their
remedies.
• ACHIEVING SAVING OF BAGASSE UP TO
20,000 MT/SEASON SINCE LAST 3 YEARS.

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