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Hans Eysenck


• At the end of this lesson you should be able to:

• Know and expound on Hans Eysenck life.

• Understand & explain the meaning of personality ‘type’, ‘trait’ & ‘dimension’

• Describe & explain ‘extroversion’, ‘introversion’, ‘neuroticism’ & ‘normality’

• Understand the relation of dimensions to personality temperaments

• Describe & explain Eysenck’s biological explanation for personality differences

and he is the third most cited psychologist of all time. in Psychology from the University of London in 1940. 1997. About Hans Eysenck • Hans Eysenck was born in Berlin. . • He has written 75 books and some 700 articles. Germany on March 4. after Freud and Piaget. he was the most cited living psychologist. • Before his death in 1997. • He received his Ph. Eysenck retired in 1983 and continued to write until his death on September 4.D. 1916.

arguing that it was a biological form of emotional instability. He frequently argued that much of personality is genetically determined and published several papers on this topic. .What did Eysenck contribute to psychology? He developed the concept of neuroticism.

Personality Terms • Personality: a person’s internally based characteristic way of acting and thinking. irritability. • Character: Personal characteristics that have been judged or evaluated • Temperament: Hereditary aspects of personality. and distractibility • Personality Trait: Stable qualities that a person shows in most situations • Personality Type: People who have several traits in common . including sensitivity. moods.

The cognitive sector (intelligence).” . and the somatic sector (constitution). For Eysenck. as determined by heredity and environment it originates and develops through the functional interaction of the four main sectors into which these behavior-patterns are organized. personality consists of acts and dispositions organized in a hierarchical fashion in terms of their level of generality. the conative sector (character). Hans J. the affective sector (temperament). Eysenck: Definition of Personality • Personality is “the sum-total of the actual or potential behavior-patterns of the organism.

Extraversion 2. Psychoticism • Introversion versus Extroversion • Emotionally Stable versus Unstable (neurotic) • Impulse Control versus Psychotic .Three Dimensions of Personality 1. Neuroticism 3.

. performance enhanced by excitement. preference for solitary vocations. • Introversion: tendermindedness. tolerance for pain. preference for vocations involving contact with other people. seriousness. easily aroused but restrained. desire for novelty. tendency to be outgoing. sensitivity to pain. Extraversion . introspectiveness. inhibited. impulsiveness.Introversion: • Extraversion: toughmindedness. performance interfered with by excitement.

slowness in thought and action. poor memory. insensitivity. cruelty. lack of persistence.Psychoticism • Neuroticism: Below-average emotional control. . Neuroticism. disregard for danger and convention. • Psychoticism: Poor concentration. will-power. lack of sociability. liking for unusual things. considered peculiar by others. below-average sensory acuity but high level of activation. suggestibility. lack of caring for others. and capacity to exert self. tendency to repress unpleasant facts. occasionally originality and/or creativity.

hopeful . related to the four basic temperaments recognized by ancient Greeks: • Melancholic (introverted + unstable): sad. calm • Sanguine (extroverted + stable): cheerful.4 Basic Temperaments The first two factors create 4 combinations. irritable • Phlegmatic (introverted + stable): sluggish. gloomy • Choleric (extroverted + unstable): hot-tempered.

Superfactors .

Eysenck Hierarchy Super- Factors Traits Habits Specific Behaviors .

Hierarchy of Behaviour Organization Type Introversion Trait Persistence Social Shyness Keeps Persist Turns Works on with Finishe Studie Habits school down hobbies work hobbies s a job s invitatio alone alone ns Specific behaviours .

. .Activity • • https://www.

Caring.Men vs. (Fuzzy?). • Suspicious. • Conforming to social norms. Women: Who is Higher on P??? Psychoticism vs. Sometimes antisocial. Non-conforming. Cooperative. Impulsive. • Low Psychoticism (Tender Minded) • Warm. Tender mindedness • High Psychoticism: • Egocentric. Right! Males tend to show higher psychoticism than females: .

depending on circumstances which are entirely under environmental control” – Eysenck 1997. Biological Basis of Personality • “Biological causes act in such a way as to predispose an individual in certain ways to stimulation. . this stimulation may or may not occur.

Biological Basis of Personality Personality types result from differences in central nervous system (CNS) functioning Implications: • Genetic basis of personality • Relatively stable & unchanging • However the environment interacts with biological predispositions . .

ADHD) .Biological Basis of Extroversion/Introversion ARAS system: • Ascending Reticular Activation System • Cortical excitation & inhibition High ARAS arousal: • Predisposes to introversion Low ARAS arousal: • Predisposes to extroversion Evidence: Introverts have higher sedation threshold than extroverts (cf.

1976) • Corr et al (1995): After high dose of caffeine: Introverts poorer performance (over-stimulated?).Some empirical findings • Introverts less tolerant of painful electric shocks (Bartol & Costello. 1999) . Extroverts better performance (stimulated?) • Frontal lobes of introverts more active than extroverts (PET scan) (Johnson et al.

Biological Basis of Neuroticism/Normality Visceral Brain (VB) system • Hypothalamus & limbic system • Mediates emotional activation High VB activation: • Predisposed to neuroticism (emotionally reactive) Low VB activation: • Predisposed to normality (non-emotionally reactive) .

Extroverts:Normal & Neurotic Sanguine Normal Extrovert • Low ARAS arousal • Low visceral brain activity Choleric Neurotic Extrovert • Low ARAS arousal • High visceral brain activity .

Introverts: Normal & Neurotic Phlegmatic Normal Introvert • High ARAS arousal • Low visceral brain activity Melancholic Neurotic Introvert • High ARAS arousal • High visceral brain activity .

1993) .Evaluation • Twin studies: E & N: 50% genetic • Adoption studies: Correlations b/w adoptive parents & adopted children for E & N are around 0% • E. N & P: highest validity of all traits (Kline.

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(1978).). N.. Dispositional Theories. Inc.. • Schultz. An Introduction to Theories of Personality (8th ed. (2009).html • Feist.. & Fiest. H. McGraw-Hill Primis. 139-149. D.References • Boeree. Hans Eysenck..ship. In Theories of Personality (Seventh ed.J: Pearson Education. from http://webspace. S. The Social-Learning Approach. G. and sex comparisons.. Eysenck. p. 539). 46(1). • Zuckerman. (2006. & Eysenck. (2010).edu/cgboer/eysenck.H. S. 2014. M. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. C. age. In Theories of Personality(Ninth ed.&Olson. B. J. UpperSaddleRiver. January 1). 627). J. . M. • Hergenhahn. p. (2008). B.R. & Schultz.. J. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Retrieved November 11. Sensation seeking in England and America: Cross-cultural.