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UNIT 3

Introduction to WSN Architecture


•A wireless sensor network (WSN)
•A Wireless Sensor Network is a self-configuring network of
small sensor nodes communicating among themselves using radio
signals, and deployed in quantity to sense, monitor and
understand the physical world.
•Like temperature, sound, pressure, etc.
Sensor nodes Anatomy:-
•WSN provide a bridge between the real physical and virtual
worlds.
•Have a wide range of potential applications to industry,
science, transportation, civil infrastructure, and security.
•Processor in various modes (sleep, idle, active)
•Power source (AA or Coin batteries, Solar Panels)
•Memory used for the program code and for in-
•memory buffering
•Radio used for transmitting the acquired data to
•some storage site .
•Sensors for temperature, humidity, light, etc
•Some of the challenges for these systems are:
1.Reliability: WSNs are wireless networks and are therefore
vulnerable to problems like packet loss.
2.Power Consumption: The nodes of Wireless Sensor Networks
are usually battery powered because of their size, and raises the
topic of energy-efficiency in all aspects.
3.Node size: Developing smaller nodes, with the same or even
more efficiency than their bigger brothers is still a challenge,
even if present sensor nodes, are hardly as big as a coin.
4.Mobility: For example, commercial applications, like vehicle
tracking, need networks that are able to constantly change its
routing paths and infrastructure.
5.Privacy and Security wireless channels are accessible to both,
legitimate and illegitimate users.
Wireless AdHoc Network

Focus on the
communication aspects.
Accessing WSNs through Internet.
Architecture of WSN
•wireless sensor node :
• consists of sensing, computing, communication, actuation, and
power components
•All components mounted PCB size in inches.
•state-of Circuit-the-art to design:
•low-power circuit as sensor node powered by 2 AA batteries
•Working for 3 years.
•A WSN usually consists of tens to thousands of such nodes that
communicate through wireless channels for information sharing
and cooperative processing.
•After the initial deployment (typically ad hoc), sensor nodes are
responsible for self-organizing an appropriate network
infrastructure
Working
•The onboard sensors then start collecting
Acoustic
•Example: mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids, 2.
Seismic: Seismic information is used to accurately plan locations
for wells, reducing the need for further exploration and
minimising environmental impact.
•, infrared or magnetic information about the environment, using
either continuous or event driven working modes.
•Location and positioning information can also be obtained
through the global positioning system (GPS) or local positioning
algorithms.
•users can retrieve information of interest from a WSN by
injecting queries and gathering results from the so-called base
stations.
Hardware Constraints of WSN
•Specification of the components of sensor nodes:
•Sensor Node:
•It may be of variable size.
•The sensor node should be cheap.
•They must be of small size.
•They have limited storage
•Microcontroller:
• It has on chip memory, peripherals and CPU.
•Depending on the application it can be 8/16 bit.
•It has memory less than 128 KB.
•It operates at low speeds(less than 20 MHz)
•It has low power consumption
•Radio Transceiver:
•They work in ISM(Industrial, Scientific, Medical) bands. They are free bands user
need not pay to operate in these bands.
•They have range varying from 100-300 feet.
•They have low output power.
•Different sensor node constrains are as
follows:
• They must be of small size and cheap
•The memory space is less, so limited storage is
available
•They should have a low power transceiver.
•They must have low data rate.
•They range of transmission is important. The
transmitting range is controlled by different
protocol.
•The power to device is limited. It is not possible
to easily recharge the battery.
•Questions
•What are the hardware constraints of WSN?
•What is wireless sensor network expalin with help of
architecture?
•What are the challenges of WSN?
•Explain the advantages and disadvantages of WSN.
•Give the specification of the component of Sensor node.
•Session 2
•Explain protocol suit of WSN
•Introduction of Topologies of WSN
•Introduction of all application of WSN
Explain protocol suit of WSN

Fig. WSN Protocol Stack


1.Physical Layer: The physical layer is responsible for frequency
selection, carrier frequency generation, signal detection,
modulation, and data encryption
2.. Data Link Layer: The data link layer is responsible for the
multiplexing of data streams, data frame detection, and medium
access and error control.
It ensures reliable point-to-point and point-to-multipoint
connections in a communication network.
MAC:
I.The first goal is creation of the network infrastructure.
II.The second objective is to fairly and efficiently share
communication resources between sensor nodes.
3. Network Layer:
•The networking layer of sensor networks is usually designed
according to the following principles:
•Power efficiency is always an important consideration.
• Sensor networks are mostly data-centric.
•In addition to routing, relay nodes can aggregate the data from
multiple neighbors through local processing.
• Due to the large number of nodes in a WSN, unique IDs for
each node may not be provided and the nodes may need to be
addressed based on their data or location.
4. Transport Layer:
•The transport layer is especially needed when the network is
planned to be accessed through the Internet or other external
networks.
•Each sensor node cannot store large amounts of data like a
server in the Internet, and acknowledgments are too costly for
sensor networks
•Therefore, new schemes that split the end-to-end communication
probably at the sinks may be needed where UDP-type protocols
are used in the sensor network.
•For communication inside a WSN, transport layer protocols are
required for two main functionalities: reliability and congestion
control.
•Application Layer
• The application layer includes the main application as well as
several management functionalities.
•query processing and network management functionalities also
reside at this layer.
•Advantages of Sensor networks:
•It avoids a lot of wiring
•It can accommodate new devices at any time
•It's flexible to go through physical partitions
•It can be accessed through a centralized monitor

•Disadvantages of Sensor networks:
•It's easy for hackers to hack it as we can’t control propagation of
waves
•Comparatively low speed of communication
•Gets distracted by various elements like Blue-tooth
•Still Costly at large
Topologies of Wireless Sensor Network:
•Peer to Peer (also called Point to Point)
•Star
• Tree
• Mesh.
Tree topology
Mesh topology
Application
•Area monitoring:
•In area monitoring, the WSN is deployed over a region where
some phenomenon is to be monitored
•A military example is the use of sensors detects enemy intrusion
•Chemical gas leakage in factory.
•Fire in forest .
•Health care monitoring:
•The medical applications can be of two types: wearable and implanted.
•Wearable devices are used on the body surface of a human or just at close
proximity of the user.
•The implantable medical devices are those that are inserted inside human
body.
•There are many other applications too e.g. body position measurement and
location of the person.
•Body-area networks can collect information about an individual's health,
fitness, and energy expenditure.
•Environmental/Earth sensing
•During a forest monitoring operation forestry scientists measure various
environmental values
•This is how they obtain indications about how the forests are changing and
what can be done to preserve them.
•Air pollution monitoring: Wireless sensor networks have been deployed in
several cities (Stockholm, London, and Brisbaneto) monitor the concentration
of dangerous gases for citizens.
•Water quality monitoring:: Water quality monitoring involves analyzing
water properties in dams, rivers, lakes & oceans, as well as underground water
reserves.
•The use of many wireless distributed sensors enables the creation of a more
accurate map of the water status.
•Natural disaster prevention: example in floods Wireless nodes have
successfully been deployed in rivers where changes of the water levels have to
be monitored in real time.
•Chemical agent detection: The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has
sponsored the integration of chemical agent sensor systems into city
infrastructures as part of its counterterrorism efforts
•Industrial monitoring
•Machine health monitoring: Wireless sensor networks have been
developed for machinery condition-based maintenance (CBM) as they
offer significant cost savings and enable new functionality.
•Data logging: Wireless sensor networks are also used for the collection
of data for monitoring of environmental information, this can be as
simple as the monitoring of the temperature in a fridge to the level of
water in overflow tanks in nuclear power plants
•The statistical information can then be used to show how systems have
been working.
•QUESTIONS
1.Explain protocol stack of WSN.
2.Explain the industrial monitoring application of WSN.
3.Write a short note on all topology of WSN?
4.Explain the application of WSN.
5.Can topology of WSN change, even if there is no mobility?
•ESSION III
•Introduction to WSN
•Explanation of WSN Architecture
•Introduction to Sensor Type
•Introduction to Sensor Technology
Introduction to WSN
•A sensor network is an infrastructure comprised of sensing (measuring),
computing, and communication elements that gives an administrator the ability
to instrument, observe, and react to events and phenomena in a specified
environment
•Components of Sensor Network:
–An assembly of distributed or localized sensors
–An interconnecting network
–A central point of information clustering
–A set of computing resources at central point.
•Sensors & Types of Sensors:
•The sensor in each node are capable of sensing and monitoring physical or
environmental parameters, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure,
motion or pollutants in different areas.
•The data obtained by each sensor will then cooperatively pass through the
network to main control station
•the main control station will take decisions based on the received data.
•The sensor nodes are deployed over a region where some parameters are to be
monitored.
•WSN are deployed in many countries to monitor air pollution, water
pollution. Landslides, floods and infrastructure of a building.
•Types of Sensors:
•Acoustic, Sound, Vibration
•Automotive, Transportation
•Chemical
•Electric Current, Electric Potential, Magnetic, Radio
•Environment, Weather, Moisture, Humidity
•Sensor networks categories:
Category 1 WSNs(C1WSNs):
•Mesh based system with multi hop radio connectivity among
or between WNS, utilizing dynamic routing for long
distances
•Supports highly distributed high-node-count applications
•Examples: Environmental Monitoring, National Security
system.
•Category 2 WSNs(C2WSNs):
•Point- to- Point, or Multipoint-to-Point(star based) systems
with single hop, radio connectivity to WNS, utilizing static
routing methods.
•Supports confined short-range spaces such as a home, a
factory, a building or human body.
•Examples: Residential Control Systems
Typical Sensor Network Arrangement:
•Working
•Question Bank:
•Write short note on architecture of WSN?
•Write short note on applications of WSN in tracking?
•What is mean by sensor network organization? Elaborate with
examples?
•SESSION IV
•Introduction Sensor Network Organization and
Tracking
•Introduction to RFID with examples
•Introduction to RFID based data communication
•Introduction to RFID based architecture
Sensor Network Organization and Tracking:
Network organization and tracking include
I. Distributed group management
II.Self-organization, including authentication,
III.Registration, and session establishment
IV.Entity tracking: target detection, classification, and
tracking.
•What is RFID:
•RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is a method of
identifying unique items using radio waves.
•Typical RFID systems are made up of three
components: readers (interrogators), antennas and tags
(transponders) that carry the data on a microchip.
•RFID Concepts:
•A non-contact system that can monitor and track items
or individuals.
•Provide unique identification that allows for a wide
range of applications
•Perform the operation using unobtrusive, “low cost”
components.
•Use Wireless Communications techniques to facilitate
•RFID Tags:
•Tags can be attached to almost anything:
•pallets or cases of product vehicles
•company assets or personnel
•items such as apparel, luggage, laundry
•people, livestock, or pets
•high value electronics such
•as computers, TVs, camcorders
•Active RFID Tags:
•Battery Powered tags
–Have much greater range – 100m
•Passive RFID Tags:
•Tag contains an antenna, and a small chip that stores a small
amount of data
•Tag can be programmed at manufacture or on installation
•Tag is powered by the high power electromagnetic field
generated by the antennas – usually in doorways
•The field allows the chip/antenna to reflect back an extremely
weak signal containing the data
•Collision Detection – recognition of multiple tags in the read
range – is employed to separately read the individual tags
•These passive tags form the basis of the Auto-ID designs, and, if
manufactured in billions, will come down in price from $0.80 to
$0.05 in the next 2 years.
•RFID System Components:
•RFID Tag
•Transponder
1.Consist of microchip that stores data and antenna
2.Active transponders have on-tag battery
3.Passive transponders obtain all power from the
interrogation signal of reader
4.Active and passive only communicate when
interrogate by transceiver
5.RFID Reader
6.Transceiver
7.Consist of a RF module, a control unit, and a
coupling element to interrogate tags via RF
communication
•Advantages of RFID Systems:
1.Ability to read data without visual access
2.Ability to read data from moving objects
3.Ability to read data at distance
4.Ability to secure the tag data
5.Ability to update data in the tag (write)
6.Ability to have automated read of tags.
RFID’s Disadvantages:
Lack of standards!
1.

Short range
2.

Cost
3.
•Livestock Tagging
•Tracking Penguins
•Package Tracking
•What is RFID? Explain with examples?
•Write short note on RFID based data communication?
•What are different advantages and disadvantages of WSN and
RFID systems.
•Write short note on RFID Components with diagram?
•What is difference between active tag and passive tags?
•Describe advantages of RFID?