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Fluid Mechanics and

Subject
Hydraulics-I

Department Civil Engineering – Sec ‘B’

The discharge through an orifice depends upon its
coefficient of discharge. It was felt by the engineers that
the discharge through an orifice is too less (due to low
value of the coefficient of discharge.)Many scientists and
engineers conducted experiments to improve the value of
coefficient of discharge. For doing so, they introduced
various types of orifices. It was only after series of
experiments, the engineers found that if a short pipe be
fitted to an orifice, it will increase the value of coefficient of
discharge through the orifice. Such a pipe, whose length is
generally more than 2 times the diameter of the orifice and
is fitted (externally and internally) to the orifice is known as
Mouthpiece.
TYPES OF MOUTHPIECES
There are many types of mouthpieces, depending upon their
size, shape or nature of discharge. But the following are
important from the subject point of view:

1)According to the position of the mouthpiece

a)Internal mouthpiece
b)External mouthpiece
2)According to the shape of the mouthpiece
a)Cylindrical mouthpiece
b)Convergent mouthpiece
c)Convergent-Divergent mouthpiece
3)According to the nature of the discharge
a)Mouthpiece running full, and
b)Mouthpiece running free
2)According to the shape of the mouthpiece
a)Cylindrical mouthpiece
b)Convergent mouthpiece
c)Convergent-Divergent mouthpiece
3)According to the nature of the discharge
a)Mouthpiece running full, and
b)Mouthpiece running free
3)According to the nature of the discharge
a)Mouthpiece running full, and
b)Mouthpiece running free
Pressure in Mouthpieces
1. Pressure in External Mouthpiece.
2. Pressure in an internal mouthpiece.
3. Pressure in Convergent Mouthpiece.
4. Pressure in a convergent-divergent
mouthpieces.
1. Pressure in External Mouthpiece.
2. Pressure in an internal mouthpiece.
3. Pressure in Convergent Mouthpiece.
4. Pressure in a convergent-divergent
mouthpieces.
Loss of Head of a liquid flowing in
a pipe
1. Loss of head due to sudden
enlargement
2. Loss of head due to sudden
contraction
3. Loss of head at the entrance in a
pipe
4. Loss of head at the exit in a pipe
5. Loss of head due to obstruction in
a pipe
Thank You
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