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Chapter 1

GROUPS AND
SUBGROUPS
BINARY OPERATIONS
Definition
- A binary operation on set is a function
mapping into , we will denote the
element of by .
Example 1.2
Our usual addition + is a binary operation on
the set . Our usual multiplication is a
different binary operation on .
Note: We require that a binary operation on a set be
defined for every element of .
Example 1.3
Let be the set of all matrices whose
entries are all real numbers. The usual + is not
a binary operation on this set. Why?
CLOSURE, INDUCED OPERATION
Definition
- Let be a binary operation on and let
be a subset of . The subset is closed under
if for all . In this case, the binary
operation on given by restricting to is the
induced operation of on .
Example 1.5
Our usual addition on the set of real
numbers do not induce a binary operation on
the set * of nonzero real numbers. Why?
Example 1.6
Let + and • be the usual binary operations of
addition and multiplication on the set , and
let . Determine whether is
closed under
(b) multiplication
Example 1.7
On , we can define a binary operation by
equals the smaller of and , or
common value if .
Example 1.8
On , we can define a binary operation by
.
Example 1.9
On , we can define a binary operation
by where is defined in
example 1.7.
COMMUTATIVE OPERATION
Definition
- A binary operation on a set is
commutative if (and only if)
for all .
ASSOCIATIVE OPERATION
Definition
- A binary operation is associative if
for all .
ASSOCIATIVITY OF COMPOSITION
Definition
- Let be a set and let and be
function mapping into . Then,
.
Example 1.13
Binary Operation Defined by a Table

* a b c
a b c b
b a c b
c c b a
Example 1.14
Complete the table so that is a commutative
binary operation on the set .

* a b c d
a b
b d a
c a c d
d a b b c
Example 1.15
On , let . Is a binary
operation on ?
Example 1.16
On , let . Is a binary
operation on ?
Example 1.17
On , let . Is a binary
operation on ?
Example 1.18
Let be the set of all real-valued functions
with domain . Suppose we “define” to give
the usual quotient of by , that is
where . Is a binary operation?