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LTE Basics Physical Layer

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Module Contents
The Rectangular Pulse
Orthogonal Multi-Carriers: OFDM
OFDM Benefits and Challenges
Effect of frequency errors in OFDM
Multiple access : OFDMA
Subcarriers Assignment Methods
SC-FDMA
OFDM Transmitter & receiver
FDD vs TDD
LTE Radio Frame Structure
3GPP spectrums allocation
Modulation Schemes in LTE/EUTRAN
MIMO
DL & UL Peak Bit Rates
LTE UE Categories
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Pulse shaping and Spectrum

Two characteristics are important for a Signal:

The time domain The frequency domain

Fourier
Transform

Define the time duration of a signal Define how much spectrum is


“howlong the symbol lasts on air” used over a specific bandwidth

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The rectangular Pulse

Rectangular pulse Sinc-shaped spectrum


(Time domain) (Frequency domain)

Fourier
Transform
Advantages: Disadvantage:
• Simple to implement •it allocates a quite huge spectrum.
•Fixe duration on time: good for multi- •Higher RF amplifier requirement
path propagation environments and
facing inter-symbol interference.

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Module Contents
The Rectangular Pulse
Orthogonal Multi-Carriers: OFDM
OFDM Benefits and Challenges
Effect of frequency errors in OFDM
Multiple access : OFDMA
Subcarriers Assignment Methods
SC-FDMA
OFDM Transmitter & receiver
FDD vs TDD
LTE Radio Frame Structure
3GPP spectrums allocation
Modulation Schemes in LTE/EUTRAN
MIMO
DL & UL Peak Bit Rates
LTE UE Categories
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Multi-Carrier Modulation

•Dividing the whole spectrum to


subcarriers and using them in parallel
(Subcarriers).

•Better spectrum efficacy, by using


small carriers with low spacing to
carry independent symbols

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OFDM: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multi-
Carrier

In OFDM:
 Overlapping carriers increases
special efficiency compared to
conventional FDM
Orthogonality between carriers
Parallel transmission of payload
across multiple
Simple rectangular pulse during
modulation period

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Spectrum Overlapping of multiple OFDM
carriers

Orthogonal Subcarriers:
it means that at the subcarriers
center frequencies, there is no
Adjacent Carrier Interefence (ACI)

No ACI (Adjacent Carrier Interference)

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LTE/EUTRAN Air Interface
Carrier
Bandwidth Number of
 In LTE, the DL air interface is based in Sub-Carriers
OFDMA (MHz)
1.4 72
 LTE uses a 15 kHz subcarrier spacing (fs)
with 66.67 μs as Symbol 3 198
5 330
 A single cell of EUTRAN uses at least 72
subcarriers and maximum 1320 10 660
subcarriers. 15 990
20 1320
Module Contents
The Rectangular Pulse
Orthogonal Multi-Carriers: OFDM
OFDM Benefits and Challenges
Effect of frequency errors in OFDM
Multiple access : OFDMA
Subcarriers Assignment Methods
SC-FDMA
OFDM Transmitter & receiver
FDD vs TDD
LTE Radio Frame Structure
3GPP spectrums allocation
Modulation Schemes in LTE/EUTRAN
MIMO
DL & UL Peak Bit Rates
LTE UE Categories
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OFDM Advantages/Disadvantages
Key OFDM Advantages
•Increase Spectrum Efficiency
–Carrier orthogonality allows tight packing
•Robustness to Multipath Fading
–Cyclic Prefix and choice of Ts (The symbol length)
•Scalable Bandwidth Allocation
–Narrow carrier bandwidth increases flexibility

Disadvantages
•High Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR)
–Instantaneous power can vary dramatically within an
OFDM symbol
• Lower PA efficiency or
•Increased costs
•Sensitive to frequency and Timing Errors
–Transmitter and Receiver need to remain synchronized
•Guard Band Requirement
–Slow roll due to rectangular pulse

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Module Contents
The Rectangular Pulse
Orthogonal Multi-Carriers: OFDM
OFDM Benefits and Challenges
Effect of frequency errors in OFDM
Multiple access : OFDMA
Subcarriers Assignment Methods
SC-FDMA
OFDM Transmitter & receiver
FDD vs TDD
LTE Radio Frame Structure
3GPP spectrums allocation
Modulation Schemes in LTE/EUTRAN
MIMO
DL & UL Peak Bit Rates
LTE UE Categories
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Leakage effect due to Frequency Drift: ICI

Two effects begin to work:


1.-Subcarrier 2 has no longer its ∆P
power density maximum here - so
we loose some signal energy.

2.-The rest of subcarriers (0, 1, 3


and 4) have no longer a null point
here. So we get some noise from
the other subcarrier. ICI

I3
I1
I4
I0

f0 f1 f2 f3 f4
ICI = Inter-Carrier Interference

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Multipath Effect (1/3)

Signals follow several propagation paths:


•Line of sight (LOS)
•Non-line of sight (NLOS)

•Multiple copies of the signal arrives at the


receiver with different intensities, phase
offset, and delays.
•Multiple versions of the same signal may
constructively and destructively interfere
with each other.

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Multipath Effect (2/3)

In OFDM, multipath causes loss of orthogonality


•Delayed paths cause overlap between symbols

Cyclic Prefix (CP) insertion helps maintain orthogonality

Insert the CP by copying and pasting the tail of the


modulation symbol

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Multipath Effect (3/3)

Cyclic Prefix

•Mitigates inter-symbol Interference (ISI)


•Reduces efficiency
•Useable time per symbol is TU/(TU+TCP)
•Selection of cyclic Prefix governed by delay spread

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Module Contents
The Rectangular Pulse
Orthogonal Multi-Carriers: OFDM
OFDM Benefits and Challenges
Effect of frequency errors in OFDM
Multiple access : OFDMA
Subcarriers Assignment Methods
SC-FDMA
OFDM Transmitter & receiver
FDD vs TDD
LTE Radio Frame Structure
3GPP spectrums allocation
Modulation Schemes in LTE/EUTRAN
MIMO
DL & UL Peak Bit Rates
LTE UE Categories
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Different Multi-Access techniques

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OFDM Multiple Access

• Up to here we have only discussed simple point-to-point or broadcast


OFDM.
• Now we have to analyze how to handle access of multiple users
simultaneously to the system, each one using OFDM.
• OFDM can be combined with several different methods to handle multi-
user systems:

Plain OFDM

Time Division Multiple Access via OFDM

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access OFDMA®

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Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
OFDMA®
+ Flexible resources allocation mechanism lead to Easy handling of
high and low bit rate users simultaneously

+ Resource blocks (RB) or scheduling blocks (SB) mechanism to


run highly variable traffic efficiently

+ Set of multiple subcarriers over some time

- More built-in multiple-access mechanism

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Module Contents
The Rectangular Pulse
Orthogonal Multi-Carriers: OFDM
OFDM Benefits and Challenges
Effect of frequency errors in OFDM
Multiple access : OFDMA
Subcarriers Assignment Methods
SC-FDMA
OFDM Transmitter & receiver
FDD vs TDD
LTE Radio Frame Structure
3GPP spectrums allocation
Modulation Schemes in LTE/EUTRAN
MIMO
DL & UL Peak Bit Rates
LTE UE Categories
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Resources allocation methods

The assignment of subcarriers can be:

Localized:
•Use consecutive subcarriers
•Simpler to implement
•LTE uses localized SC-FDMA
for data and control channels

Distributed:
•Distribute subcarriers across
frequency bands
•Increases frequency diversity
•Also increases complexity

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Subcarriers Assignment Methods

Localized OFDMA/SC-FDMA Interleaved (Distributed) OFDMA/SC-FDMA

time time

• 4..7 dBlower Pick to


•Channel conditions is not a Average Power Ratio PAPR
critical input for the than localized version
scheduler …
subcarrier

subcarrier
•Detailed information about
•Overall channel each channel is needed by
estimation, thus simpler the scheduler
receiver

•Throughout Lower then in
Localized assignment mode

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Module Contents
The Rectangular Pulse
Orthogonal Multi-Carriers: OFDM
OFDM Benefits and Challenges
Effect of frequency errors in OFDM
Multiple access : OFDMA
Subcarriers Assignment Methods
SC-FDMA
OFDM Transmitter & receiver
FDD vs TDD
LTE Radio Frame Structure
3GPP spectrums allocation
Modulation Schemes in LTE/EUTRAN
MIMO
DL & UL Peak Bit Rates
LTE UE Categories
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Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR)

• The transmitted power is the sum of the powers of all the


subcarriers

• More subcarriers, cause higher peak to average power ratio (PAPR)

• The higher the peaks, the greater the power range levels over which
the transmitter is required to work.

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SC-FDMA (solution)

High Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) is significant


problem for the Uplink:
•Large variations of power on a per carrier basis with
OFDM

Required characteristics of a UE transmitter


are:
OFDMA

•Low complexity
SC-FDMA

•Limited transmit Power


•Low Cost

These characteristics can be achieved by using Single


Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA)
•Also Known as Discrete Fourier Transform Spread OFDM (DFTS-
OFDM)
•This mechanism can reduce the PAPR of 6..9 dB compared to
normal OFDMA.
• SC-FDMA is one option in WiMAX (802.16d) and it is
the method selected for EUTRAN in the uplink direction.

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SC-FDMA characteristics

•SC-FDMA uses DFT precoding of user data


Individual bits mapped across multiple frequencies

•DFT size (M) defines number of subcarriers allocated to user data

•Time domain signal more resembles a single carrier


PAPR reduced

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SC-FDMA and OFDMA Comparison (1/2)

• OFDMA transmits independent data in deferent multiple subcarriers

• SC-FDMA spread data over a set of subcarriers

OFDMA SC-FDMA

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SC-FDMA and OFDMA Comparison (2/2)

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Summary: OFDMA/ SC-OFDMA

• OFDMA Downlink / SC-FDMA Uplink


• Channel Bandwidths: 1.4, 3,5,10,15 and 20 MHz
• Subcarrier Bandwidth: 15 kHz
• 7.5kHz also supported for Broadcast/Multicast
• Two cyclic Prefix choices:
• Normal and Extended
• Data Modulation: QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM

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Module Contents
The Rectangular Pulse
Orthogonal Multi-Carriers: OFDM
OFDM Benefits and Challenges
Effect of frequency errors in OFDM
Multiple access : OFDMA
Subcarriers Assignment Methods
SC-FDMA
OFDM Transmitter & receiver
FDD vs TDD
LTE Radio Frame Structure
3GPP spectrums allocation
Modulation Schemes in LTE/EUTRAN
MIMO
DL & UL Peak Bit Rates
LTE UE Categories
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Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

• The practical implementation of an OFDM system is based on the use of the


Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and the inverse operation (IDFT) to switch
between time and frequency domain representations
• The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is a faster method for calculating the
Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and it is and fundamental element in OFDM

T
t FFT 1/T f

T
FFT
t 0 f

FFT = Fast Fourier Transform


IFFT = Inverse FFT

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FFT Application in OFDMA

• FFT & IFFT are blocks included in an OFDMA system:


• FFT in the Receiver
• IFFT in the Transmitter

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OFDMA SCFDMA Transmitter

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Module Contents
The Rectangular Pulse
Orthogonal Multi-Carriers: OFDM
OFDM Benefits and Challenges
Effect of frequency errors in OFDM
Multiple access : OFDMA
Subcarriers Assignment Methods
SC-FDMA
OFDM Transmitter
FDD vs TDD
LTE Radio Frame Structure
3GPP spectrums allocation
Modulation Schemes in LTE/EUTRAN
MIMO
DL & UL Peak Bit Rates
LTE UE Categories
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LTE FDD and TDD Modes

t
t
Duplex Time
Bandwidth Bandwidth Bandwidth
Uplink
UL
UL
UL
Uplink Downlink DL
DL Downlink
DL
DL
f
f
Duplex Frequency

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FDD vs TDD

FDD Mode TDD Mode

•Reciprocity of UL and DL
Better L1 performance for Low Ue velocities
•Faster scheduling possible Reduced L1 signaling
•No interference problem Easy open loop algorithms possible
Easy coexistence with neighbor •Support of Asymmetric UL and DL traffic
operators Less restrictions for pico and micro cells
•No cell synchronization necessary But very strong restrictions for macro cells
•Deployment in unpaired bands possible
But coexistence issues with other systems and
other operators

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Module Contents
The Rectangular Pulse
Orthogonal Multi-Carriers: OFDM
OFDM Benefits and Challenges
Effect of frequency errors in OFDM
Multiple access : OFDMA
Subcarriers Assignment Methods
SC-FDMA
OFDM Transmitter & receiver
FDD vs TDD
LTE Radio Frame Structure
3GPP spectrums allocation
Modulation Schemes in LTE/EUTRAN
MIMO
DL & UL Peak Bit Rates
LTE UE Categories
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LTE Radio Frames, Slots and Subframes
FDD mode (1/2)

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LTE Radio Frames, Slots and Subframes
FDD mode (2/2)

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LTE Radio Frames, Slots and Subframes
TDD mode (1/2)

•The DwPTS/GP/UpPTS are in special “S » subframe


•There are 7 different configurations for the duration of DwPTS/GP/UpPTS
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LTE Radio Frames, Slots and Subframes
TDD mode (2/2)

•LTE-TD can coexist with TD-SCDMA

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OFDMA Resource Block for LTE/EUTRAN
F

• EUTRAN combines OFDM symbols in so called Subcarriers


resource blocks (RB)
• A single resource block is always 12

Resource Block
consecutive subcarriers during one slot ( 0.5 ms)

Bandwidth
180kHz
•The scheduler always allocates minimum of 2
consecutive RB for one user Subcarrier
Bandwidth
•1 ms This is the transmission time interval (TTI) 15kHz
in LTE
•A single cell must have at least 6 resource blocks
(72 subcarriers) and up to 110 are possible (1320
subcarriers)
T
Slot Slot

Subframe 1ms
OFDMA resource Grid for LTE/EUTRAN.
Channel Estimation
•Channel estimation based on reference symbols (Pilot Symbols).
•Reference symbols helps the UE to keep the synchronization with the
network over the air interface, both in term of time and frequency
synchronization.
•In WCDMA common pilot channel (CPICH) was used for this (together
with reference symbols on DCH).

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Module Contents
The Rectangular Pulse
Orthogonal Multi-Carriers: OFDM
OFDM Benefits and Challenges
Effect of frequency errors in OFDM
Multiple access : OFDMA
Subcarriers Assignment Methods
SC-FDMA
OFDM Transmitter & receiver
FDD vs TDD
LTE Radio Frame Structure
3GPP spectrums allocation
Modulation Schemes in LTE/EUTRAN
MIMO
DL & UL Peak Bit Rates
LTE UE Categories
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3GPP Spectrum allocation

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Module Contents
The Rectangular Pulse
Orthogonal Multi-Carriers: OFDM
OFDM Benefits and Challenges
Effect of frequency errors in OFDM
Multiple access : OFDMA
Subcarriers Assignment Methods
SC-FDMA
OFDM Transmitter & receiver
FDD vs TDD
LTE Radio Frame Structure
3GPP spectrums allocation
Modulation Schemes in LTE/EUTRAN
MIMO
DL & UL Peak Bit Rates
LTE UE Categories
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OFDM and modulation techniques

Each tone can be modulated with:


• BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying)
• QPSK ( Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)
• 16-QAM or 64-QAM ( Quadrature Amplitude Modulation)

Thus, each tone can carry 2 to 6 coded bits for each symbol time

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Module Contents
The Rectangular Pulse
Orthogonal Multi-Carriers: OFDM
OFDM Benefits and Challenges
Effect of frequency errors in OFDM
Multiple access : OFDMA
Subcarriers Assignment Methods
SC-FDMA
OFDM Transmitter & receiver
FDD vs TDD
LTE Radio Frame Structure
3GPP spectrums allocation
Modulation Schemes in LTE/EUTRAN
MIMO
DL & UL Peak Bit Rates
LTE UE Categories
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MIMO (for Multiple Inputs Multiple Outputs)

• It is a key technology to increase a channel’s capacity by using


multiple transmitter and receiver antennas.
• The very basic ideas behind MIMO have been established already
1970 but have not been used in radio communication until 1990.
• MIMO is currently used in 802.11n, 802.16d/e to increase the
channel capacity.
• Many MIMO schemes standardized in 3GPP:
– HSDPA Rel 7
– LTE Rel 8 (2x2 and 4x4 MIMO configurations)
– More advanced schemes being studied for Rel9 and Rel 10
– Also used in 802.11, Wimax and other non-3GPP technologies
• The ability to dynamically adapt to changing channel conditions
is a key focus of LTE Rel 8

TX RX
MIMO
Tx Channel Rx
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MIMO characteristics

• Transmission of several independent data streams in parallel over


uncorrelated antennas (i.e. separated by >= 10 λ)
Increased data rate
• The radio channel consists of NTx x NRx (ideally uncorrelated paths
• Theoretical maximum rate increase factor= Min (NTx, NRx) (in a rich
scattering environment; no gain in a line-of-sight environment)

Multiple codeword (MCW): each stream/ antenna has its own FEC coding

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MIMO implementation types (1/2)

MIMO gains depends on how the data pipes are used.


•Data stream on only the strongest pipe- Beamforming
‒Use all the power on the strongest pipe( i.e., the most efficient pipe)
‒Increased coverage and signal SNR

•Different data streams on different pipes – Spatial Multiplexing


‒Increased spectral efficiency (increased overall throughput)
‒Power is divided among the data streams

•Same data on all the pipes - Diversity Gain


‒Increased coverage and link quality

•Different data on different pipes for different users- SDMA


‒Spatial Division Multiplexing (SDMA) is also referred to as co-channel
interference reduction
‒Increased system capacity
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MIMO implementation types (2/2)

Radio channel

MISO (Multiple In Single Out)


eNodeB Beam forming
Transmit diversity
Radio channel

SIMO (Single In Multiple Out)


eNodeB Receive diversity

Radio channel

MIMO (Multiple In Multiple Out)


eNodeB
All above + Spatial multiplexing (MIMO)

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Module Contents
The Rectangular Pulse
Orthogonal Multi-Carriers: OFDM
OFDM Benefits and Challenges
Effect of frequency errors in OFDM
Multiple access : OFDMA
Subcarriers Assignment Methods
SC-FDMA
OFDM Transmitter & receiver
FDD vs TDD
LTE Radio Frame Structure
3GPP spectrums allocation
Modulation Schemes in LTE/EUTRAN
MIMO
DL & UL Peak Bit Rates
LTE UE Categories
54
Downlink Peak Bit Rate

2x2 MIMO (2 antennas for TX, 2 Antennas for RX)


64QAM
Control overhead 7.1%
Reference symbol overhead 7.7%

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Uplink Peak Bit Rate

Single stream transmission with 16QAM assumed


Reference symbol overhead 14.3%
One resource block for Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)

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Module Contents
The Rectangular Pulse
Orthogonal Multi-Carriers: OFDM
OFDM Benefits and Challenges
Effect of frequency errors in OFDM
Multiple access : OFDMA
Subcarriers Assignment Methods
SC-FDMA
OFDM Transmitter & receiver
FDD vs TDD
LTE Radio Frame Structure
3GPP spectrums allocation
Modulation Schemes in LTE/EUTRAN
MIMO
DL & UL Peak Bit Rates
LTE UE Categories
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LTE UE Categories
All categories support 20 MHz
64QAM mandatory in downlink, but not in uplink (except Class 5)
2x2 MIMO mandatory in other classes except Class 1

Qualcomm first chipset has 50 Mbps downlink and 25 Mbps uplink

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Summary

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