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Electrons are Shared in a Covalent Bond

By sharing electrons, each atom attains


the electron configuration of a noble gas

• Each hydrogen has 2 valence electrons, like helium


• Carbon and oxygen have 8 valence electrons, like neon

H
H O H C O H
H
H
Water, H2O Methanol, CH3OH
Single, Double & Triple Bonds
Each dash represents one pair of shared electrons in a bond

Single
bond H H H H
Double
bond O O O O
Triple
bond N N N N
Electron dot Structural formulas
structures
Typical Number of Covalent Bonds
Formed by Some Common Elements
Hydrogen & Halogens: 1
H H Oxygen: 2
O
N C C Nitrogen: 3
H O H Carbon: 4
H
Glycine, an amino acid Cl
H C Cl
Cl
Chloroform
Molecular Formulas & Structures
Name: Methane Molecular Formula: CH4
H

H
C
H C H H H

H
H
Structural Perspective Ball & Stick
Formula Drawing Model
Molecular Shape and the Tetrahedron

• The 4 hydrogen atoms in


methane repel each other and
move as far away from each
other as possible
• The molecule takes the shape
of a tetrahedron
Methane, CH4
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
• Pairs of valence electrons repel each other and
get as far away from each other as possible
• Electron pairs go to the corners of a tetrahedron

Methane, CH4 Ammonia, NH3 Water, H2O


Tetrahedral Pyramidal Bent
Comparison of BH3 to NH3

H
3 electron pairs
B Trigonal Planar
H H
Borane, BH3

H N H 4 electron pairs
Pyramidal
H (tetrahedral electron-
pair geometry)
Ammonia, NH3
Electronegativity & Polarity
Electronegativity is a measure of an atom’s
ability to attract electrons in a chemical bond

H
H F O
d+ d-
H
Hydrogen fluoride d+ d-
Water
Electronegativity Values
Halogens gain an electron to form anions.
Halogens have high electronegativities.
4.5
4.0
F
Alkali metals lose an 3.5

Electronegativity
electron to form cations.
Cl 3.0
Alkali metals have low
Br 2.5
electronegativities.
2.0
1.5
Li
Na 1.0
K 0.5
0.0
Periodic Trends: Electronegativity
Electronegativity is a measure of an atom’s
ability to attract electrons in a chemical bond
Electronegativity and Bond Polarity
• The difference in electronegativities between
atoms determines the type of bond
• Nonpolar covalent and ionic bonds are not
fundamentally different – just two extremes of the
same thing

Difference Bond Type Example (difference)_


0.0 – 0.4 Nonpolar covalent H – H (2.1 – 2.1 = 0)
>0.4 – 2.0 Polar covalent O – C (3.5 – 2.5 = 1.0)
> 2.0 Ionic Cl – Na (3.0 – 0.9 = 2.1)
Polar Molecules are Not Symmetrical
and Have Polar Covalent Bonds
Polar Nonpolar
O2 – Symmetrical,
H2O – Not symmetrical, nonpolar bond
polar bonds
CO2 – Symmetrical,
polar bonds
NH3 – Not symmetrical,
polar bonds CH4 – Symmetrical,
nonpolar bonds
CH2O – Not symmetrical,
polar C=O bond CH3I – Not symmetrical,
nonpolar bonds
Covalent Bonds Form When Sharing
Electrons Produces a Lower Energy State
Bond Length Trends
More bonds between Bond lengths
atoms produces increase moving
shorter bonds down a group in the
Periodic Table

C 154 pm
C C 134 pm
F

C C C 176 pm
Cl
134 pm

C C C 193 pm
Br
120 pm
Two Theories of What Happens to
Orbitals in Chemical Bonds
Linus Pauling: Valence Bond Theory
and the formation of Hybrid Orbitals
• Useful for predicting molecular shape
• Results agree with VSEPR theory

Robert Mulliken: Molecular Orbitals


• More difficult to understand
• Better at predicting electronic
structure (where the electrons are)
Atomic Orbitals Combine to Form
Hybrid Orbitals

One s and three p


Atomic Orbitals Four sp3
Hybrid Orbitals

Hybrid orbitals surround the central atom in a molecule


Formation of Hybrid Orbitals
Around Carbon in Methane
Place electrons in original
valence atomic orbitals
s p3

Promote s electron to p orbital

Combine one s and three p orbitals


to form four sp3 hybrid orbitals
sp3
One Hybrid Orbital Forms for Each
Electron Pair on the Central Atom
• Two Pairs: One s and one p orbital
combine to form two sp orbitals
sp • Linear electron-pair geometry as in BeCl2

• Three Pairs: One s and two p orbitals


combine to form three sp2 orbitals
• Trigonal planar electron-pair geometry as in BF3
sp2
• Four Pairs: One s and three p orbitals
combine to form four sp3 orbitals
• Tetrahedral electron-pair geometry as in
H2O, NH3, CH4
sp3
Use the tables on page 184 and 242 of your
book to classify the following bonds
Electronegativity Atom with partial
Bond Bond type
difference negative charge
H-H
Cl-Cl
C-H 2.5 – 2.1 = 0.4 C Nonpolar covalent
O-C
N-C
F-H
Cl-Na
C-I
H-Si
C-S
O-H
Use the tables on page 184 and 242 of your
book to classify the following bonds
Electronegativity Atom with partial
Bond Bond type
difference negative charge
H-H 0 Nonpolar covalent
Cl-Cl 0 Nonpolar covalent
C-H 2.5 – 2.1 = 0.4 C Nonpolar covalent
O-C 1.0 O Polar covalent
N-C 0.5 N Polar covalent
F-H 1.9 F Polar covalent
Cl-Na 2.1 Cl Ionic
C-I 0 ? Nonpolar covalent
H-Si 0.3 H Nonpolar covalent
C-S 0 ? Nonpolar covalent
O-H 1.4 O Polar covalent
Ionic or Covalent?
Compound Ionic or Covalent?
NaCl
CH4
HNO3
CaCl2
CaCO3
H2O
CH3CH2OH
NH4Cl
CCl4
BF3
Ionic or Covalent?
Compound Ionic or Covalent?
NaCl ______Ionic_____
CH4 ____Covalent___
HNO3 ______Ionic_____
CaCl2 ______Ionic_____
CaCO3 ______Ionic_____
H2O ____Covalent___
CH3CH2OH ____Covalent___
NH4Cl ______Ionic_____
CCl4 ____Covalent___
BF3 ____Covalent___