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Design of Stator Winding

Stator design is common for both squirrel cage

and slipring induction motors.
1.Small motors mush winding is used
2. Medium double layer lap winding
3. Large single layer winding
Turns per phase

 EMF equation of an induction motor is given by

Eph = 4.44fΦTphkw
 Hence turns per phase can be obtained from emf equation
Tph = Eph/ 4.44fΦkw
 Generally the induced emf can be assumed to be equal to the
applied voltage per phase

 Flux/pole, = Bav x πDL/P,

 winding factor kw may be assumed as 0.955 for full pitch

distributed winding unless otherwise specified.

 Number conductors /phase, Zph = 2 x Tph, and hence Total number

of stator conductors Z = 6 Tph and conductors /slot Zs = Z/Ss or 6
Tph/Ss , where Zs is an integer for single layer winding and even
number for double layer winding.
Conductor cross section:
Area of cross section of stator conductors can be estimate
from the stator current per phase and suitably assumed
value of current density for the stator windings.

 Sectional area of the stator conductor as = Is / δs where δs is

the current density in stator windings

 Stator current per phase Is = Q / (3Vph cos )

 A suitable value of current density has to be assumed

considering the advantages and disadvantages.

Advantages of higher value of current density:

 reduction in cross section

 reduction in weight
 reduction in cost
Design of Stator
 In stator design there are two parts

1. Stator core
2. Stator slots
Stator core
Stator Slots

(i) Open type (ii) Semiclosed type (iii) Tapered type

1. Open type slots
 When open slots are used the winding coils can be formed
 Open slots are normally used in tapered slots and parallel side teeth for
small motors
2. Semi closed slots
 The coils must be tapped and insulated after they placed in the slots.
 Airgap contraction factor is small giving a small value of current.

3. Number of stator slots

 Tooth pulsation loss ------The pulsation losses are approxi- rotor
surface losses and eddy-current losses in
the rotor bars.
 Leakage Reactance ------ large slots ----increase the insulation
 Mechanical difficulties
 Magnetizing current and iron loss ----- large slots ------higher flux
density --------- it rises the current
and iron loss
 Cost

Slot liner

Coil separator
Coil insulation

Slot insulation detail with conductor

Stator coils, placed in slots

Guidelines for selecting number of
stator slots
1. The number of slots should be selected to give an integral number of
slots per pole phase q=2 to 4 is sufficient

2. Stator slot pitch airgap lies between 15 to 25mm

semi closed slots may be less than 15mm
Stator slot pitch at the air gap surface = Yss= πD/Ss
where Ss is the number of stator slots

3. Stator slots should be multiples of slots per pole per phase (q)
No. of slots Ss = no. of phase * poles * stator slots per pole per phase
Ss = m*p* qs
qs = varies as 2,3,4…….

4.Choice of stator slots are based on common between the values

obtained in guidelines 1 and 2.
5. If more than one choice satisfies the the best choice of stator
slots should satisfies slot loading condition.
Slot loading = current in each conductor per phase * stator
conductor per slot
= Iz * zss

6. Conductor per slot

Zs = 3*2Tph
= 6 Tph
zss = Total number of stator conductors/ Number of stator slots

zss = Zs / ss
= 6 Tph/ ss
Length of air gap
 Power factor------- airgap is large---- large magnetizing current -----
gives poor pf
Good pf ---- length of airgap is small
 Overload capacity--- large value of airgap length decrease the
leakage reactance
 Pulsation losses
 Unbalanced magnetic pull----- the forces between the rotor and
stator are normally negligible when they are concentric, an
unbalanced magnetic pull occurs when the rotor axis is displaced
from the stator axis.
--avoid UMP length of airgap should be large
 Cooling------ length of airgap is large stator and rotor separate by
large distance.
 Noise
The mmf required for the airgap
ATg = 800000 BglgKg

Estimate the length of airgap ( lg ) of small motors use any one of the
lg = (0.2+2 DL )*10-3

lg = (0.125+0.35+L+0.015Va )*10-3

lg = (0.2+D)*10-3 (commonly used)

lg = (1.6 D -0.25)*10-3
Design of Rotor
 Diameter of the rotor should be lower than
that of the stator to avoid mechanical friction
 The stator and rotor should have same
1.Harmonic induction torque crawling

Sometimes, squirrel cage induction motors exhibits a tendency to

run at very slow speeds (as low as one-seventh of their synchronous
speed). This phenomenon is called as crawling of an induction
motor. This action is due to the fact that, flux wave produced by a
stator winding is not purely sine wave.
2. Cogging

 When the rotor teeth and stator teeth face each other, the reluctance of the
magnetic path is minimum, that is why the rotor tends to remain fixed. This
phenomenon is called cogging or magnetic locking of induction motor.

3. Vibration and Noise

4. Voltage ripples ----- Effects are reduced by adopting the
following techniques.
Rules for selecting rotor slots of
squirrel cage machines
Design of Rotor Bars and Slots
1. Rotor Bar Current:
Bar current in the rotor of a squirrel cage induction motor may be determined by
comparing the mmf developed in rotor and stator.

Ib =(6 Is Ts / Sr )*Kws cosϕ

2.Cross sectional area of Rotor bar:

As a guide line the rotor bar current density can be assumed between 4 to 7
Amp/mm2 or may be selected from design data Hand Book
Rotor bars can be calculated as ab = Ib /δb

3. Shape of rotor slots:

4. Rotor slot insulation

• Normally no insulation is provided between bars and rotor core.

• A clearance of 0.15 to 0.4mm can be left between bars and rotor core.
Design of End Rings
Current distribution in Rotors
 Thus the maximum end ring current may be taken as the sum of the
average current in half of the number of bars under one pole.
 The current in all bars is not maximum at
one instant
• For better ventilation the current density in the end
rings could be selected higher value of current density
in bars.