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Kumar S P
Assistant Professor
PG and Research Department of Economics
Sree Narayana College, Varkala, Sivagiri
Re means Again
Search means Seeking Facts

Examine the validity of old conclusion

Unfold the truth
Construction of New Theories
Aid to the Society
Personality development
 Pure Research
 Applied Research
 Exploratory Research
 Descriptive Research
 Diagnostic Research
 Evaluation Research
 Quantitative Approach
a. Inferential
b. Experimental
c. Simulation

 Qualitative Approach
a. Attitudes
b. Opinion
c. Behaviour
“Well begun is half done"

 From where ???????

• Curiosity
• Information Gaps
• Controversy
• Replication
• Review of related literature
• Other People(policy, governance....)???
 Research Idea generates from…

 Everyday life (Professional experience)

 Practical issues (Burning questions)
 Review of Past research/Literature
 Professional meetings
 Discussions with experts
 Which leads to identify a critical research gap
which often generates more questions
 Disagreements among studies can also lead to
worthwhile research problems…
News Stories/noval areas of knowledge
Personal Experiences
Review of Research
• Electronic Databases
• Library Indices
• Web pages
• Internet Libraries
• Authorities
• Opinion Leaders
• Funding Sources
 Research areas are usually stated in a few words, and sometimes
just one word.
 Research topics are a few words, but usually more than those
describing the research areas
 From research area to research problem
 Research area: In migration in Kerala

Possible research topics:

1. Economic and social impact of inmigration in Kerala
2. Managing inmigration and changing scenario of labour market in
3. Extent of workplace exploitation of inmigrant labourers in the
construction sector in Kerala
4. Rate of increase of inmigrant labourers in the construction sector

Note: Topic 1&2  Qualitative; 3&4 Quantitative

Broad areas

Dissect into subareas

Identify research gaps

Select the most interesting one

Research questions

Formulate objectives
 Assumption or supposition to be proved or
 It is a tentative proposition formulated for
empirical testing.
 Simple, Complex
 Direction to research, Correct data collection,
selection of proper samples and procedures,
framework for drawing conclusions.
 In-depth background knowledge
 Identification of concepts and potential
 Formulation of researchable hypothesis
 Appropriate methodology, research design,
methods of analysis
 Identification of data source
 Preparation of research report
 Variables Quantity which can assume
a range of numerical values

 Dependent & Independent Variables

 Quantitative and Qualitative Variables
 Primary and Secondary data
 Sampling Design
 Sampling Techniques
 Random Sampling
 Stratified Sampling – non homogeneous
 Systematic sampling – selection based on
 Purposive sampling – deliberate sampling
 Cluster sampling - group
 Snowball sampling
 Observation Method
 Interview Method
 Questionnaire Method
 Schedule Method
a. Open end questions
b. Closed questions
c. Pictorial questions
d. Dichotomous questions
e. Choice questions
f. Ranking items of questions
 Editing- consistency, uniformity,
 Coding – symbols and numbers
 Classification- attributes, variables
 Tabulation- table number, title, foot note
 Graphs and diagrams
 Descriptive Analysis – distribution of variables
a. Univariate Analysis
b. Bivariate Analysis
c. Multivariate Analysis

 Inferential Analysis - Testing of Hypothesis

 Technique of drawing inference
 Findings of the analysis in objective terms
 Extra care should be given for interpreting
statistical analysis
 Should help to understand general factors
 Should provide theoretical conception for
further research.
 Each chapter have its own introductory and
concluding passages
 Consistent in style and organization
 Limit first person usages
 Avoid long sentences
 Avoid one sentence paragraph
 Make use of punctuations correctly and
 Use quote mark consistently
 Use illustration to illumine, extend and confirm
your idea
 Remove unnecessary repetitive words or
 Summerise two or more sentences or the whole
paragraph in one sentence
 Delete non essential reference, quotes etc.
 Replace lengthy description by tables or charts
and avoid news paper research
 Use simple language – avoid technical jargons;
active voice
 Avoid vague expression like it seems, may be etc
 Use APS format for bibliography
 Length of the Thesis – 20 to 25 pages
 Introduction
a. Statement of the problem
b. Objectives
c. Hypothesis
d. Methodology
e. Scope of the study
f. Chapterisation
• Literature Survey
• Analysis
• Conclusion and Policy Suggestions
• Bibliography
• Appendix
Thank You Very Much
Best Wishes
Sl.No Criteria Maximum Marks

1 Introduction 15
2 Review of Literature 10
3 Analysis 20
4 Findings and Conclusions 15
5 Language 15
6 Bibliography 5
7 Total 80
8 Viva Voce 20