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Wireless Power

Transmission
Presented by

Urvesh Pachore
ROLL NO:- 26

Submitted to :-

Mrs. Gangurde
OVERVIEW
 INTRODUCTION
 DEFINITION
 HISTORY
 TYPES OF WPT
 Atmospheric conduction method
 Electrodynamic induction method
 Advantages and disadvantage
 Applications
 Conclusion
 References
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INTRODUCTION
• One of the major issues in power system is the losses
occurring during the transmission and distribution of
electrical power.
• The percentage of loss of power during transmission and
distribution is approximated as 26%.
• The main reason for power loss during transmission and
distribution is the resistance of wires used in grid.
• According to the World Resources Institute (WRI), India’s
electricity grid has the highest transmission and
distribution losses in the world – a whopping 27-40%.
• Tesla has proposed methods of transmission of electricity
using electromagnetic induction.
DEFINITION

• As the word wireless means “without wire”.


• Wireless energy transfer or wireless power is the
transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an
electric load without interconnecting man made
conductors.
• Wireless transmission is useful in cases where
interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous or
impossible.
HISTORY

Sir NICOLAI TESLA was the first one to propose and research the idea of
wireless transmission in 1899, since than many scholars and scientists
have been working to make his dream a reality.

• 1899: Tesla continues wireless power transmission research in


Colorado Springs and writes, "the inferiority of the induction
method would appear immense as compared with the disturbed
charge of ground and air method
• 1961: William C. Brown publishes an article exploring
possibilities of microwave power transmission

• 2009: Sony shows a wireless electrodynamics-induction powered TV


set, 60 W over 50 cm
METHODS

Different methods of transmission proposed by different


scientist and scholars are:

1. Atmospheric conduction method of Tesla

2. Electrodynamic induction method:


 Microwave method
 Laser method
Atmospheric conduction
method
In 1899 Sir NICOLAI TESLA and HEINRICH HERTZ
powered a fluorescent lamp keeping it 25 miles away from
source without using wire. Wireless power transmission
experiments at WARDEN CLYFFE High frequency
current, of a Tesla coil, could light lamps filled with gas
(like neon). In this method a closed circuit is made using
transmitter, ionized path between upper atmosphere and
transmitter, second ionized path connecting receiver. The
circuit back to the transmitter is completed through the
earth .
Atmospheric conduction
method
High potential is maintained at transmitter and receiver
end as well. A high potential transmitter transmits an
“electromotive impulse” through the ionized path to the
upper atmosphere where it ionizes the air, and this air
between the transmitter and receiver would conduct like a
neon tube .
LIMITATIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC
CONDUCTION METHOD

• Economically challenging.

• Periodic changes in atmospheric condition.

• Maintaining high tower potential every time.


ELECTRODYNAMIC INDUCTION
METHOD
 We bring electromagnetic radiation into
practice, which uses far field technique in order
to achieve range into kilos, which includes two
techniques:
• LASERS
• MICROWAVE
LASER transmission
 LASER is highly directional, coherent
 Not dispersed for very long
 But, gets attenuated when it propagates through atmosphere
 Simple receiver
 Photovoltaic cell
 Cost-efficient

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LASER METHOD
• In the case of electromagnetic radiation closer to visible
region of spectrum (10s of microns (um) to 10s of nm),
power can be transmitted by converting electricity into
a laser beam that is then pointed at a solar
cell receiver. This mechanism is generally known as
"power beaming" because the power is beamed at a
receiver that can convert it to usable electrical energy.

OPTICAL FIBRE
TRANSFORMER
LASER

CURRENT CURRENT
MICROWAVE METHOD
• Power transmission via radio waves can be made more
directional, allowing longer distance power beaming, with
shorter wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, typically
in the microwave range. A rectenna may be used to convert
the microwave energy back into electricity. Rectenna
conversion efficiencies exceeding 95% have been realized.
Power beaming using microwaves has been proposed for
the transmission of energy from orbiting solar power
satellites to Earth.

• The principle of Evanescent Wave Coupling extends the


principle of Electromagnetic induction.
Applications

 Near-field energy transfer


 Electric automobile charging
 Static and moving
 Consumer electronics
 Industrial purposes
 Harsh environment
 Far-field energy transfer
 Solar Power Satellites
 Energy to remote areas
 Can broadcast energy globally (in future)
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ADVANTAGES

 Efficient
 Easy
 Need for grids, substations etc are eliminated
 Low maintenance cost
 More effective when the transmitting and receiving
points are along a line-of-sight
 Can reach the places which are remote

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DISADVANTAGES

• When microwaves are used, interference may arise


• When LASERS are used, conversion is inefficient
due to absorption losses.
• It is radioactive in nature
• Distance constraint , initial cost is high.
• Field strength has to be under safety levels
• High frequency signals should be supplied for air
ionization which is not feasible.
CONCLUSION

 Transmission without wires- a reality


 Efficient
 Low maintenance cost. But, high initial
cost
 Better than conventional wired transfer
 Energy crisis can be decreased
 Low loss
 In near future, world will be completely
wireless
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References

 S. Sheik Mohammed, K. Ramasamy, T. Shanmuganantham,”


Wireless power transmission – a next generation power
transmission system”, International Journal of Computer
Applications (0975 – 8887) (Volume 1 – No. 13)
 Peter Vaessen,” Wireless Power Transmission”, Leonardo Energy,
September 2009
 C.C. Leung, T.P. Chan, K.C. Lit, K.W. Tam and Lee Yi Chow,
“Wireless Power Transmission and Charging Pad”
 David Schneider, “Electrons unplugged”, IEEE Spectrum, May
2010
 Shahrzad Jalali Mazlouman, Alireza Mahanfar, Bozena
Kaminska, “Mid-range Wireless Energy Transfer Using Inductive
Resonance for Wireless Sensors”
 Chunbo Zhu, Kai Liu, Chunlai Yu, Rui Ma, Hexiao Cheng,
“Simulation and Experimental Analysis on Wireless Energy
Transfer Based on Magnetic Resonances”, IEEE Vehicle Power
and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), September 3-5, 2008
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