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SPPP 3042

RESEARCH METHODS IN EDUCATION


NUR NAJWA BINTI NOOR AZMAN
(A16PP0054)
NOR ATIKAH BINTI HASSAN
(A16PP0039)
CHAPTER 4

SPECIFYING A PURPOSE AND


RESEARCH QUESTIONS
OR HYPOTHESES
INTRODUCTION
• Purpose statements, research questions and
hypotheses provide critical information to
readers about the direction of a research study.
• They also raise questions that the research will
answer through the data collection process.
• In this chapter you will learn about purpose
statements, research questions and hypotheses
and how to write them for both quantitative and
qualitative research.
Example
Literature review on school violence and writes
down a statement that represents the central
direction of her study:

QUANTITATIVE
• “I would like to study the reasons
RESEARCH why students carry weapons in
STATEMENT high schools.”

QUALITATIVE
• “I would like to study students’
RESEARCH experiences with weapons in high
STATEMENT school.”
DISTINGUISHING AMONG VARIOUS
FORMS OF DIRECTION IN RESEARCH

PURPOSE RESEARCH
STATEMENT QUESTIONS

RESEARCH RESEARCH
HYPOTHESES OBJECTIVES
PURPOSE STATEMENT
• Is a statement that advances the overall direction or
focus for the study.
• Researchers describe the purpose of a study in one or
more succinctly formed sentences.
• It is typically found in the statement of the problem
section.
• It often appears as the last sentence of an introduction.

Researchers typically state it beginning with the


phrase “The purpose of this study is …..”
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
• Research questions are questions in quantitative or qualitative
research that narrow the purpose statement to specific
questions that researchers seek to answer.
• Researchers typically develop them before identifying the
methods of the study. (the types of data to be collected,
analyzed and interpreted in a study)
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH QUESTION
QUESTION
“What types of Internet
“Do Parent-Teacher Internet experiences do parents have
communications affect student with teachers about the
performance in the classroom?” performance of the parents’
children?”
RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
• Hypotheses are statements in quantitative
research in which the investigator makes a
prediction or a conjecture about outcome of a
relationship among attributes or
characteristics.

An illustration of a hypothesis is:

Students in high schools in the school district in which parents and


teachers communicate through the Internet will have higher grades than
students whose parents and teachers do not communicate through the
Internet.
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
• Is a statement of intent used in quantitative research that
specifies goals that the investigator plans to achieve in a
study.
• Investigators have clearly identified objectives.
• Like hypotheses and research questions, objectives are
found at the end of the statement of the problem section.
“The objectives in this study are…..”

For instance, the following represent objectives for a study:

1. To describe the frequency of Internet communication between parents and teachers


regarding the parents’ children in high school social studies classes.
2. To describe the types (or categories) of Internet communication between parents
and teachers.
3. To relate frequency and types of communication to student achievement in the class
as measured by performance on test.
PURPOSE RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH
STATEMENT QUESTION HYPOTHESIS OBJECTIVES

- Overall - Raise - Make - State goals


direction questions to prediction to be
be answered about accomplished
expectations
WHY ARE THESE STATEMENTS AND
QUESTIONS IMPORTANT?
These statements are signposts similar to a thesis statement or
objective in term papers you may have written.

Without clear signposts, the readers will be lost throughout your


study.

The readers will not know the central ideas addressed in your study.

You can also identify the most appropriate methods for collecting data
from the purpose and the questions.

To write good purpose statements and research questions, we will


begin with some concepts that you need to know, and then establish
the building blocks for writing these statements and questions into a
study.
HOW DO YOU DESIGN QUANTITATIVE
PURPOSE STATEMENTS, RESEARCH
QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES?
• To write quantitative purpose statements,
research questions and hypotheses, you need
to understand the important and use of
variables.
• We start with their definition, talk about the
various types used in quantitative research
and then discuss their use in broad theories or
explanations
Specify Variables
• A variable is a characteristic or attribute of an
individual or an organization (a) that researchers
can measure or observe (b) and varies among
individuals or organization studied.
• They are key ideas that researchers seek to
collect information on to address the purpose of
their study.

Consider the following examples of variables typically


studied in educational research:

 Leadership style (by administrators)


 Achievements in science (by students)
 Interpersonal communication skills (of counselors)
The Family of Variables

DEPENDENT INDEPENDENT MODERATING


VARIABLES VARIABLES VARIABLES

CONTROL CONFOUNDING
VARIABLES VARIABLES
DEPENDENT INDEPENDENT MODERATING CONTROL CONFOUNDING
VARIABLES VARIABLES VARIABLES VARIABLES VARIABLES
(PEMBOLEH (PEMBOLEH (PEMBOLEH (PEMBOLEH (PEMBOLEH
UBAH UBAH TAK UBAH UBAH UBAH
BERSANDAR) BERSANDAR) MODERATOR/ KAWALAN) MENCELAH)
PENGUBAH)

- Is an - Is an - Variables - Is another - The


attribute or attribute or constructed by type of researcher
characteristic characteristic the researcher independent cannot
that is that influence by taking one variable that directly
dependent on or affects an variable times researchers measure
or influenced outcome or another to measure for because their
by the in dependent determine the the purpose of effects cannot
dependent variable. joint impact of eliminating it be easily
variable. - Example: both variables as a possibly. separated
- Example: number of together. - Example: from those of
achievement trials / time - Example: intelligent other
scores on a on math gender variables.
test / math instruction (male/female) - Example:
scores maturity
Example for dependent an
independent variables
“Do students who spend more instructional time
in class on math have higher math scores than
students who spend less time?”

Independent variable :Time on math instruction


Dependent variable :Math scores
WRITING QUANTITATIVE PURPOSE STATEMENT,
RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES
WRITING QUANTITATIVE PURPOSE
1 STATEMENTS
• The purpose of this study is to test (the theory) by relating (the independent
variable) for (participants) at (the research site).
• “The purpose of this study is to test Fines’ theory (1996) by relating
leadership style to autonomy for teacher in high schools in United State.”

WRITING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH


2 QUESTIONS
• How frequently do (participants) (variable) at (research site)?
• “How frequently do African Americans feel isolated on college campuses?”
3 WRITING QUANTITATIVE HYPOTHESIS
• “The more students feel alienated, the more likely they are to carry weapons to
school.”

NULL HYPOTHESES

• There is no difference between (independent variable, group 1) and (independent


variable, group 2) in terms of (dependent variable) for (participants) at (research site).
• “There is no difference between at-risk and non-at-risk students in terms of students
achievement on math test scores for third-grade students in a Midwest school district.”

ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESES

• (group 1, independent variable) at (research site) will have (some difference, such as
higher, lower, greater, lesser) on (dependent variable) than (group 2 of independent
variable).
• “Students who participate in direct learning in four elementary school will have higher
achievement scores than students who participate in whole-language learning.”
Quantitative Qualitative
Hypothesis are used Hypothesis are not use
Identifies multiple variable Term variable is not use
Test theories Theories are typically not
tested
Employs a close-ended Uses more of an open-ended
stance by stance
Selecting instruments to Often change the
collect data before study phenomena being studied
begins
The
The central
emerging The intent or purpose of a
phenomenon
process study and the questions
The concepts or a asked by the researcher
process explored in may change during the
qualitative research. process of inquiry based
on feedback from
participants.
Quantitative Qualitative

Explaining or Predicting
Understanding or Exploring a Central
Variables
Phenomenon
X Y

The independent variable (X)


influences a dependent
variable (Y)
In-depth understanding of Y,
external forces shape and are
shaped by Y
When they try to quit
What are high school
Where do they smoke smoking, where does
students’ experiences
at the high school? this occur at the
with smoking?
school?

Initial, organizing Further shaped


Shaped questions
questions questions

Continued Data
Start of project Initial Data Collection
Collection
Indicates the intent to explore understand the central
phenomenon with specific individuals at a certain
research site.

In quantitative research, this purpose statement as a


single sentences and typically include it in a study at the
end of the introduction.
 Guidelines
1. Use key identifier words to signal the reader.
2. State the central phenomenon you plan to explore
3. mention the participants in the study.
4. Refer to the research site where you will study the
participants.

 Sample script
The purpose of this qualitative study will be to
(explore/discover/understand/describe) (the
central phenomenon) for (participants) at (research
site).
Research questions in qualitative research help
narrow the purpose of a study into specific
questions.

Qualitative research questions are open-ended,


general question that the researcher would like
answered during the study.
Guidelines
1. Expect the qualitative questions to change and to emerge
during a study to reflect the participants’ view of the
central phenomenon.

2. Ask only a few, general questions.

3. Ask questions that use neutral.

4. Design and write two type of qualitative questions:-

 The central question

 subquestions
The overarching question you explore in a research study.
When you write this question, place it at the end of the
introduction to your study, and state it as a brief question.

A simple script
What is (the central phenomenon) for (participants) at
(research site)?
The central question into
subquestions to be addressed in the
research

Issues subquestions are questions that narrow the focus of the


central question into specific (or issues) the researcher seeks to
learn from participants in a study

What is (the subquestion issues) for


(participants) at (research site).