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Sheet Metalworking 2 - Chapter 19

1. Dies
2. Presses for Sheet Metal Processes
3. Sheet-Metal Operations Not Performed on Press
4. Bending of Tube Stock
Dies for Sheet Metal Processes
Most pressworking operations performed with
conventional punch-and-die tooling
 Custom-designed for particular part
 The term stamping die sometimes used for high
production dies
Punch and Die Components

Figure 20.30 Components of a punch and die for a blanking operation.

Progressive Die

Figure 20.31 (a)

Progressive die;
(b) associated
strip development
Partially completed strips from a
Progressive Die
The "Advance”
 When referring to Progressive Dies:
 is the distance between stations in the Die.
 it is the distance it moves each time the Press opens.
When referring to Dies:

• Is what the Pilots in the Die do.

• As the Die closes the "Bullet" nose on the pilot enters a

previously pierced hole and moves the material into
proper alignment for the next operation.
 Pilots should be long
enough to properly
locate the strip before
initial contact of the pad
or stripper.
 If a pilot hole cannot be
made in the part, it can
be placed in the scrap
Set blocks
 Are used as a gauge to set the "Shut Height" of the Die.
(adjust the top half of the Die down to its closed
 Usually only one is required, but it is not unheard of to
have as many as 4, one at each corner of the Die.
 When there is only 1 it is usually mounted in the center
of the Die holder between the guide pins.
Two halves of Die set
Set blocks (red posts)
How is shear applied for a Piercing operation?
 It is usually applied to the Piercing Punch.
Reducing instantaneous cutting force through
staggering punch length
 Pictorial view of oblong
punches and mounting
Stamping Press

Figure 20.32 Components of a typical mechanical drive stamping press

Types of Stamping Press Frame
 Gap frame
 Configuration of the letter C and often referred to as a
 Straight-sided frame
 Box-like construction for higher tonnage
Figure 20.33 Gap frame
press for sheet
metalworking (ohoto
courtesy of E. W. Bliss
Co.); capacity = 1350 kN
(150 tons)
Straight side mechanical
 Straight side mechanical: so
called because the 2 side
housings are straight and have
slides the ram travels on,
machined into them. These side
frames also have openings
incorporated into them to allow
the strip material to be fed
through the press & if needed
out the other side. These types
of presses utilise
cranks/eccentrics or hydraulics
for producing force/motion.
Their rated capacity is from
approx. 150 tons up.
Figure 20.37
Straight-sided frame
press (photo courtesy of
Greenerd Press &
Machine Company,
 A strip feeder: Located on, or close to, the
press. It feeds the material through the
press using feed rolls or a "Hitch"
mechanism. Feeders can feed strip
material very precisely.

 A strip Straightener:
 Its main purpose is to provide flat & straight
stock. A secondary benefit is that the
material feeds through dies more easily. The
Straightener is located between the coiler
and the Press. It removes wrinkles and
curvature from strip after uncoiling, and
straightens the strip, by feeding through a
series of rolls, which bend it past its elastic
limit. The first set of rolls exerts the most
extreme bending. The amount of bending
becomes progressively less as the strip
moves through the straightner rolls.

 A coil winder or 'Coiler": First piece of
equipment used in processing the strip, it
provides a stand on which to mount the
strip, allows the strip to unwind as needed
and does not mark the strip.

Figure 20.34 Press
brake (photo courtesy
of Niagara Machine &
Tool Works); bed
width = 9.15 m (30 ft)
and capacity = 11,200
kN (1250 tons).
Figure 20.35 Sheet metal parts produced on a turret press, showing
variety of hole shapes possible (photo courtesy of Strippet Inc.).
Figure 20.36 Computer numerical control turret press (photo
courtesy of Strippet, Inc.).
Tie Rods
Notice the T slots
Purpose of the Gibs?
The business part of the press
 Model:S2-600-120-60T
 Capacity:600 Tons
 Useable energy per stroke @ 25
SPM 529 inch- Tons
 Area of slide and bolster 120" X
 Strokes per minute 25 to 50 SPM
 Main drive motor 150 HP Adj.
 Stroke of slide16“
 Shut height, 42" (48" optional)
 Adjustment of slide (power) 10“
 Bolster thickness 8“
 Column openings, FB X Ht. 53" X
Power and Drive Systems
 Hydraulic presses - use a large piston and cylinder to
drive the ram
 Longer ram stroke than mechanical types
 Suited to deep drawing
 Slower than mechanical drives
 Mechanical presses – convert rotation of motor to
linear motion of ram
 High forces at bottom of stroke
 Suited to blanking and punching
Operations Not Performed on
 Stretch forming
 Roll bending and forming
 Spinning
 High-energy-rate forming processes.
Stretch Forming
Sheet metal is stretched and simultaneously
bent to achieve shape change

Figure 20.39 Stretch forming: (1) start of process; (2) form die is
pressed into the work with force Fdie, causing it to be stretched and
bent over the form. F = stretching force.
Force Required in Stretch
F  LtYf

where F = stretching force; L = length of sheet

in direction perpendicular to stretching; t =
instantaneous stock thickness; and Yf = flow
stress of work metal
 Die force Fdie can be determined by balancing
vertical force components
Roll Bending

Large metal sheets and plates are formed into

curved sections using rolls

Figure 20.40 Roll bending.

Roll Forming

Continuous bending process in which

opposing rolls produce long sections of
formed shapes from coil or strip stock

Figure 20.41 Roll

forming of a
channel section:
(1) straight rolls,
(2) partial form,
(3) final form.
Metal forming process in which an axially symmetric
part is gradually shaped over a rotating mandrel
using a rounded tool or roller
 Three types:
1. Conventional spinning
2. Shear spinning
3. Tube spinning
Conventional Spinning

Figure 20.42 Conventional spinning: (1) setup at start of process; (2)

during spinning; and (3) completion of process.
High-Energy-Rate Forming
Processes to form metals using large amounts of energy
over a very short time
 HERF processes include:
 Explosive forming
 Electrohydraulic forming
 Electromagnetic forming

©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

M P Groover, Fundamentals of
Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Explosive Forming
Use of explosive charge to form sheet (or plate) metal
into a die cavity
 Explosive charge causes a shock wave whose energy is
transmitted to force part into cavity
 Applications: large parts, typical of aerospace industry
Explosive Forming

Figure 20.45 Explosive forming: (1) setup, (2) explosive is

detonated, and (3) shock wave forms part and plume escapes
water surface.
Electromagnetic Forming
Sheet metal is deformed by mechanical force of an
electromagnetic field induced in the workpart by an
energized coil
 Presently the most widely used HERF process
 Applications: tubular parts
Electromagnetic Forming

Figure 20.47 Electromagnetic forming: (1) setup in which coil is

inserted into tubular workpart surrounded by die; (2) formed part.