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Electromagnetism

Electromagnets

 Whenever an electric current flows


through a conductor, a magnetic field
is formed around the conductor
– Electromagnets depend on current flow
to produce a magnetic field
 Magnetic field usually only lasts as long as
current is flowing
Current flowing through a conductor produces a magnetic field
around the conductor.
 Increasing current flow will increase the
magnetic field strength
– Turns or loops of wire also increase the
magnetic field strength
 Strength of an electromagnet
– Proportional to its ampere-turns
 Determined by multiplying the number of turns
of wire by current flow
Winding the wire into a coil increases the strength of the
magnetic field.
Core Material

 Base material
– Wires are wound around
 Air-core magnet
– Nonmagnetic core materials (e.g., wood)
 Iron-core magnet
– Magnetic core materials (e.g., iron or soft
steel)
 Greatly increase magnet strength
Core Material (cont’d)

 Permeability
– Material’s ability to become magnetized
 Reluctance
– Resistance to magnetism
 Saturation
– All molecules of a magnetic material line up
 Residual magnetism
– Remains after magnetizing force is stopped
Magnetic Devices

 Common devices that operate on


magnetism:
– Electromagnets, inductors, transformers,
and motors
 The speaker
– Also operates on the principle of
magnetism
Motor
Solenoid
Transformers

The magnetic field of the primary winding induces


a voltage into the secondary winding.
Speaker