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DC Machines:

Motors & Generators

 Direct Current motors are
manufactured from the
millihorsepower range to several
hundred horsepower, and are
available in voltages ranging from as
low as 1.5V for millihorsepower motors
to 6, 12, 24, 48, 120, 240, 550, and
even 750V.

 A dynamo is an electrical generator

that produces direct current with the
use of a commutator. Dynamos were
the first electrical generators capable
of delivering power for industry, and
the foundation upon which many other
later electric-power conversion
Construction of a Dynamo

 Basically consists of a main frame,

Field poles, field pole windings,
armature structure armature windings,
Commutator Brushes,shaft bearing,
and end bells.
Constuction Details
1. (the main frame) made of carbon steel.
2. (the field poles) made of laminated steel alloys.
3. (the shunt field windings) many turns of fine
copper wire.
4. (the armature structure) stack of laminated alloy
steel disks.
5. (armature windings) placed within the slots of the
armature structure.
6. (the commutator) a rotary rectifier or switch
constructed of copper wedges separated by mica
7. (carbon brushes) used to make low resistance
connection to the commutator.
Types of DC Motors

The type of DC motor is determined by

the internal wiring connections:
1. Series - good starting torque
2. Shunt - excellent speed moderation
3. Compound - used for characteristics of
4.Separately excited DC Generator
Shunt motors
 Have low starting torque but good
speed regulation.
 If the shunt field is opened, the
current through the armature would
runaway until it self destructed.

Series Motors
 Develop High starting torques with
poor speed regulation and always be
attached to a load.
DC Motor Nameplates
DC “Generator” Control

Three Factors control the EMF generated:

1. the speed with which the conductors

cut the magnetic lines of force. (flux)
2. the strength of the magnetic field. (flux)
3. the number of conductors cutting the
magnetic lines of force.