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Single-Phase Transformers


 Transformers
– Among the most common devices found
in the electrical field
– Range in size and rating
Single-Phase Transformers

 Transformers
– Magnetically operated machines
– Can change values of voltage, current, and
impedance without a change of frequency
 Transformer classifications
– Isolation transformer
– Autotransformer
– Current transformer
All values of a transformer are proportional to its turns ratio.
Single-Phase Transformers

 Primary winding
– Connected to the incoming power supply
 Secondary winding
– Connected to the driven load

An isolation transformer has its primary and secondary

windings electrically separated from each other.
Isolation Transformers

 Greatly reduce voltage spikes that

originate on the supply side
– Before they are transferred to the load side

The isolation transformer greatly reduces the voltage spike.

Isolation Transformers
 Important considerations
– Basic operating principles
 Self-induction: coil induces a voltage into itself
– Excitation current
 Amount of current required to magnetize the
core of the transformer
– Mutual induction
 Ability of one coil to induce a voltage into
another coil
Basic construction of an isolation transformer.
Magnetic field produced by AC.
The magnetic field of the primary induces a voltage into the
Transformer Calculations

 Voltage of secondary winding

– Formula: EP/ES = NP/NS
 Current flow of the secondary
– Formula: I = E/Z
 Primary current
– Formula: EP/ES = Is/Ip
 Power in must equal power out
Calculating Isolation
Transformer Values
Using the Turns Ratio
 Formula: Ratio = 240 V/ 96 V

Computing transformer values using the turns ratio.


Transformer with multiple-tapped primary winding.

Distribution Transformers

Distribution transformer.
Transformer Core Types

 Several types of cores are used

– Laminated cores
– Core-type transformer
– Shell-type transformer
– H-type core
– Tape-wound core or toroid core
A core-type transformer.

 One-winding transformers

An autotransformer has only one winding used for both

the primary and secondary.
 Transformers
– All values of voltage, current, and impedance
are proportional to the turns ratio
– Can change values of voltage, current, and
impedance but cannot change the frequency
– Primary winding is connected to the powerline
– Secondary winding is connected to the load
– Step-down transformer: lower secondary
voltage than primary voltage
Summary (cont’d.)

– Step-up transformer: higher secondary

voltage than primary voltage
– Isolation transformer: primary and
secondary windings are electrically and
mechanically separated from each other