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Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings

Module: 4
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings

Objectives:
1. Identify types of wire rope, slings
and hardware.

2. Inspect for, and identify signs of


wear and damage.

3. Correctly select and use rigging


hardware.

4. Identify signs of wear and damage


to slings.

5. Identify safe sling configurations.

6. Calculate working load limits of slings.

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 1
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Wire Rope: 4 Basic Constructions

Ordinary Construction Warrington Construction

6x19 fibre core 8x19 fibre core 6x19 fibre core 8x19 fibre core

Seale Construction Filler Construction

6x19 IWRC 8x19 fibre core 6x21 fibre core 8x19 IWRC

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 2
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Examples of Rope Damage: Worn , Abraded

Enlarged view of single strand

When surface wires are worn by 1/3 or more of their


diameter, the rope must be replaced.

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 3
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Examples of Wire Rope Damage: Bird Caging

Torsional unbalance…typical at
anchorage end of multi-fall
crane application

Sudden release of tension and


rebound of rope from overloaded
condition.

‘Bird cage’ wire rope forced


through a undersized sheave

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 4
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Examples of Wire Rope Damage: Kinks/Core Protrusion

Kinks can result from improper handling,


uncoiling and wrong D/d ratio, leading to
severe damage.

Core protrusion as a result of torsional


unbalance created by shock loading

Protrusion of IWRC resulting


from shock loading

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 5
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Wire Rope: Procedures and Precautions

1. Select Correct Rope

2. Inspect regularly

3. Never overload

4. Never use “frozen “ rope


(corroded, brittle, inflexible)

5. Use larger size rope when:


- exact load weight is unknown
- possibility of shock load
- severe conditions
- hazard to personnel
Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing
Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 6
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Wire Rope: Procedures and Precautions (cont’d)

6. Use softeners

7. Avoid dragging rope

8. Store in clean, dry place

9. Never use damaged rope

10. Maintain as per manufacturer’s instructions

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 7
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Effect of Sling Angle on Sling Loads

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 8
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Sling Configurations

2-LEG 4-LEG
3.
1. BRIDLE BRIDLE
HITCH HITCH

Note: With 3 leg and


4 leg bridles, load
may be carried by
only 2 legs while the
2
other legs merely
balance it.

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 9
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Sling Configurations

WARNING:
Sharp sling angles reduce capacity. Softeners
protect the slings and increase sling angle.

NOTE: Capacity of basket hitches


is affected by their sling angles.

Single Basket Hitch

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 10
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Sling Configurations

Double Basket Hitch

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 11
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Sling Configurations

Hitch compresses load


and keeps it from Pair of double-wrap
slipping out of slings basket hitches

Double-Wrap Basket Hitch

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 12
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Sling Configurations

Choker Hitch
Not suited
to long, loose
Bundles.

“Doubled” used
to turn loads

Does not fully support loose


loads – material can fall out.

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 13
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Sling Configurations

Double Choker Hitch

2 single chokers
attached to the
load and spread
to provide load
stability.
Does NOT
completely
grip the load.

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 14
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Sling Configurations

Double Wrap Choker


compresses load.

Pair
Single

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 15
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Sling Configurations – Multi-Tiered Load
O. Reg. 213 - sec. 103.1

- 2 or 3 individually rigged structural steel pieces that are;

1. suspended so that they remain horizontal;

2. aligned vertically;

3. Moved simultaneously by a crane

• Requires written procedures to ensure safety of workers. Shall be


prepared by a professional engineer.
• Constructor must give notice to M.O.L. BEFORE first load is lifted.

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 16
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Slings: Centre of Gravity (C of G)

No.
C. of G. is above the
1. Is it stable?
lift points.

No. Load will shift


until C. of G. is below Yes. Hook is
2. Is it stable? 3. Is it stable?
hook. over C. of G.

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 17
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Single Vertical Wire Rope Hitch - Field Calculation Formula

Single Vertical Hitch


W.L.L. – Wire Rope

W.L.L. = D2 x 8

Examples:

½” wire rope
½ x ½ x 8 = 2 tons

5/8” wire rope


5/8 x 5/8 x8 = 3 1/8 tons

1” wire rope
1 x 1 x 8 = 8 tons

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 18
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
2-Leg Wire Rope Bridle Hitch - Angle and WLL
450 & 600 sling angles are easiest to identify in the field.
When L = S x 3/4 When L = S, Sling angle = 600
Sling angle = 450
eg., S=12’
Eg., S= 12’ L=12’
L = 12 x 3/4 = 9’

Capacities for these (and other) angles are found in tables of


WLLs…
Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing
Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 19
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Sample Wire Rope Sling Table

For fabricated
bridle hitches -
Load rating tag
may also be
provided by the
manufacturer.

Or, capacity can be estimated using a simple formula…


Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing
Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 20
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
2 Leg Wire Rope Bridle Hitch: Field Calculation Formula

= D2 x 8 x H/L x 2
H/L h/l
Example: ½” wire rope.
H=3 and L=4

D x D x 8 x H/L x 2

½ x ½ x 8 x ¾ x 2 = 3 tons

(for 2-leg hitch)

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 21
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
3-Leg Wire Rope Bridle Hitch: Field Calculation Formula

• WLL
= WLL (of single vertical hitch) x
H/L x 2

• When legs are not of equal length


use smallest H/L ratio

• Note: Certain irregular or rigid


loads may be carried by only 2 of
the 3 legs. In these cases, use the
formula for a 2-leg bridle.

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 22
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
4- Leg Wire Rope Bridle Hitch: Field Calculation Formula

• Loads may only be carried by 2


legs while 3rd and 4th legs merely
balance load.

• Therefore, use WLL of single


vertical hitch x H/L x2.

• When legs are not of equal length


use smallest H/L ratio

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 23
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Single Basket Hitch: Field Calculation Formula

Inclined legs – WLL


= WLL (of single vertical
hitch) x H/L x 2

Vertical legs – WLL


= WLL (of single vertical hitch)
x2

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 24
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Chain - Identification For overhead lifting use only
alloy steel chain grade 80
marked with – 8, 80, or 800

Chain links Master link

Chain slings usually have


an I.D. tag. Always check
that rated capacity is
based on D.F. of 5. Some
chain slings are based on
D.F. of 3.5 or 4 and must
be de-rated.

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 25
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Chain - Inspection
Inspect all links for bends,
twists and damage
Twisted
link
When new, gauge a
length of the chain

Measure length
Look for chain stretch of 10 – 20 links
during inspections
Re-measure the
same number of
Look for links after use to
chain gauge amount of
stretch stretch

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 26
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Chain - Inspection

Inspect all links for gouges, chips and cuts

Inspect all links for wear at bearing surface


Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing
Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 27
WB
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Synthetic Web Slings: Characteristics
Synthetic
web
1. Nylon or polyester
slings do not
damage or
2. Resists alkalis and acids W.L.L.
crush loads
3. Less tendency to crush

4. Not affected by moisture


Web slings
5. Will not rust mold
themselves
6. Non-sparking to the load

7. Absorbs shock load


NOTE: W.L.L.
8. Soft-molds to shape of load must be marked on sling
Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing
Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 28
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Synthetic Web Sling Designs

Steel end fittings - allow the sling to be


easily used in basket or choker
configuration.
Triangle/triangle - Used only in
vertical and basket configurations.

Eye & Eye slings - Can be rigged in any


configuration

Endless sling – versatile, general purpose -


can be rigged in any configuration, can be
readily adjusted to compensate for wear.

Wide Body - used in basket hitch -


heavy duty sling for load stability.

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 29
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Synthetic Web Slings: Signs of Damage & Wear
Inspect web slings BEFORE every use!
Acid Damage

Heat Damage

Punctures & Snags Cuts, Tensile Damage


Cuts

Tensile Break
Abrasion Damage

Illegible or Missing Tag Face Cuts

DO NOT USE DAMAGED WEB SLINGS!


Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing
Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 30
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Protective Sleeves & Wear Pads
• Wear pads - provide Wear Pads
extra protection at wear
points. Can be sewn on
both sides of sling, on sling Sling surface
Eye pad
edges, or in sling eyes.

• Sleeves - protect Sling edge


sling on both sides. Sleeves
Can be positioned at
various points to Eye Sleeve Cordura Sleeve
accommodate for
changing positions of
concentrated ‘Ready’ Sleeve
Leather Sleeve
wear. Best for cut Attaches with ‘hook & loop’
protection when
handling material Kevlar Sleeve
with sharp edges.
Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing
Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 31
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Web Sling - Working Load Limits (WLL)

All web slings must carry a V-3300 lbs


load rating tag as specified
C-2475 lbs
in the Regulations for
Construction Projects. B-6600 lbs

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 32
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Metal Mesh Slings

• Excellent for lifting objects with sharp or


hot edges, such as plate steel or bar stock.

• Wide load bearing surface enhances load


balancing, helps prevent slippage.

• Steel fabricating and machine shops have


excellent applications for mesh slings.

• Look for load rating capacity stamping or


tag.

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 33
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Want more information?
“Slings” - Contents
 Sling Configurations

 Sling Angles

 Working Load Limits

 Centre of Gravity

 Wire Rope Slings

 Chain Slings

 Synthetic Web Slings

 Metal Mesh Slings

 Fibre Rope Slings

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 34
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings

HOOKS Hook Inspection Areas

Alloy Recommended
Wear Check for wear,
and Cracks, and
 Must have safety catch
twisting deformation
 W.L.L. should be marked Opening up at tip

 Inspect regularly
Wear and cracks

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 35
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Hook Loading: Back load Tip load

How do we
prevent this
hazard?
Never Back Load

Never
Tip Load

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 36
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Hook Loading: Back load Tip load

90

45/90 Rule Keep sling


angles to
When placing two (2) 45/90 or less.
sling legs in hook, angle
from vertical to
outermost leg must not be
greater than 45 degrees.

Included angle 90
between the legs must
not exceed 90 degrees.

Mrb/CUPE 3585 45
Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 45 What about loads requiring
greater sling angles? 37
For two leg slings with angles greater than 90
Hardware, Wire Rope,
degrees or slings with more than 2 legs:
Slings

• Use master link, screw pin or bolt type


shackle to collect sling legs.

• Provides in-line load on the hook.

Master link or shackle = 100% rated capacity


(WLL) when symmetrically loaded with 2 sling
legs up to 120 degree included angle.

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 38
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Hook Loading: Sling hooks - NEVER…

Side Load Back Load Tip Load

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 39
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Weld-On Hooks
• Welding is to be performed by
a qualified welder using qualified
procedure.

• Only welded to equipment in an area (load


point) approved by the equipment
manufacturer.

• Strength of the weld-on hook depends


on method of attachment.

Inspect these hooks BEFORE each


use. Look for cracks in the welds and
distortion of the hook body.

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 40
WB
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Wire Rope Clips
Forged alloy steel recommended
Fist Grip U-Bolt

When made of drop-forged steel, clips will develop approximately


80% of rope strength when installed properly in terms of:
AMOUNT - SPACING - TORQUE
Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing
Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 41
WB
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Wire Rope Clips
U-Bolt Clip Installation U-section

Apply
Apply all
1st other clips.
clip one Space
base evenly
Always use Saddle
6width
to 7 rope
fromdiameters
dead end
Apply apart.
with
a as
2nd clip thimble
close
live end resting in saddle.
to loop as possible.
The U-section of the clip
must be in contact with the
dead end of the rope – Not
the saddle.
Apply tension and torque nuts.
“NEVER SADDLE A DEAD HORSE”

If even one clip is installed


incorrectly, efficiency of
connection may be reduced by
up to 40%
Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing
Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 42
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Clip Installation

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 43
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Shackles

 Sized by diameter of
bow section

 Embossed with WLL

 Never replace pin with


a bolt

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 44
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Shackles

Do not use screw pin shackle where it may unscrew.

 

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 45
ShacklesHardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Bolt Type
Check that shackle is not
opening up (Spreading)

Check that pin is


always seated
(Threads)
Round Pin
Which type is most commonly
used in construction rigging
Check for wear
applications? and straightness

Screw Pin W.L.L.

Check for wear

Screw Pin Anchor type:


most commonly used
Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing
Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 46
Shackles
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Side Loading Reduction: Screw Pin and Bolt Type Shackles Only
† DO NOT SIDE LOAD ROUND PIN SHACKLES

† Round pin shackle

50%

70%

100% 100%

Angle loading must be applied in the plane of the bow.

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 47
WB
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Shackles
Shackles: Symmetrically loaded with two slings:
Never Exceed 120° included angle.
Use Bolt Type and Screw Pin Shackles ONLY.

100% WLL

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 48
WB
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Eyebolts: Shoulderless Type:

• Should be forged alloy steel


• Embossed with WLL
• Size by diameter of shank
• Recommended for inline pull ONLY

Eye bolt Ring bolt

Angle pull will bend or break. Correct

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 49
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Eyebolts: Shoulder Type:

Correct WLL is 100%


Bolt tightened
in place.

Nut properly
torqued

Correct Packed with


correct size
washers for 450 = 30% of WLL
shoulder contact 900 = 25% of WLL

WLL is reduced

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 50
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Snatch Blocks
• Used to change direction of
pull on line

• Available for both wire and


fibre rope
• Keep hands and body away from
block sheaves, swivels, and
"pinch points" where rope touches
block parts or loads.

• Do not side load tackle blocks.

• Make sure the side opening is


properly secured and will not open
up during use.

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 51
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Stress on block and supporting structure varies with angle
between load and load line.

2000 lb. 1840 lb. 1410 lb.

1000 lb. 1000 lb.


1000 lb.
760 lb.

1000 lb.

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 52
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings
Turnbuckles:
• Used to adjust the length
of a sling leg

• Always use a lock wire if


subjected to vibration or
rope torque. (Lock nuts
may be available from the
manufacturer)

• Inspect for: Cracks,


bends, thread damage,
bent rods

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 53
Hardware, Wire Rope, Slings

Hoisting and Rigging – Basic Safety Training

Hoisting & Rigging - Basic Safety Traniing


Mrb/CUPE 3585
Mod. 4. (c) CSAO 2006 54