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University of Technology, Jamaica

School of Engineering

B.Eng. 3: Electrical Machines & Power


Systems
(ELE 3010)

Dr. Milton Richardson


Email: mrichardson@utech.edu.jm
Ext: 2230
January 16-29, 2017
1
Objectives
• Discuss the differences between three-
phase and single-phase voltages.

• Discuss the characteristics of delta and


wye connections.

• Compute voltage and current values for


delta and wye circuits.

. 2
Introduction
• Most of the electrical power generated in
the world today is three-phase

• Three-phase power is the most efficient


way that electricity could be produced,
transmitted, and consumed

3
Polyphase Circuits
• So far, we have only dealt with single-
phase circuits.

• A single-phase ac power system consists


of a generator connected through a pair of
wires (a transmission line) to a load.

4
Three-Phase Circuits

• We produce a single-phase alternating


voltage by rotating a magnetic field
through the conductors of a stationary coil.

5
Three-Phase Circuits
• A three-phase alternating voltage is
produced by placing three such coils
around a magnet, each separated by 120o.
This will produce three signals that are
each 120o out of phase.

6
Three-Phase Circuits

7
Three-Phase Circuits
 In three-phase circuits, one generator is
used to create three signals that are 120o
out of phase.

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Three-Phase Circuits
1. The convention adopted to identify each
of the phase voltages is: R-red, Y-yellow,
and B-blue Or A - (red),B – (yellow), C –
(Blue).
2. The phase –sequence is given by the
sequence in which the conductors pass
the point initially taken by the red
conductor, eg. R, Y, B.

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Phase Sequence
A set of balanced three-phase voltages consists of three sinusoidal
voltages that have identical amplitudes and frequencies but are out of
phase with each other by exactly 1200. The phases are referred to as
a, b, and c, and usually the a-phase is taken as the reference.
abc (positive) phase sequence: b-phase lags a-phase by
1200, and c-phase leads a-phase by 1200.

Vc

Va  Vm 00
Va Vb  Vm -1200
Vc  Vm + 1200

Vb
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Phase Sequence

acb (negative) phase sequence: b-phase leads a-phase by 1200,


and c-phase lags a-phase by 1200.
Vb
Va  Vm 00
Va Vb  Vm + 1200
Vc  Vm -1200

Vc

Another important characteristic of a set of balanced three-phase


voltages is that the sum of the voltages is zero.
Va  Vb  Vc  0
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Instead of using one coil only , three coils are used arranged in one
axis with orientation of 120o each other. The coils are R-R1 , Y-Y1
and B-B1. The phases are measured in this sequence R-Y-B. I.e Y
lags R by 120o , B lags Y by 120o.

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Finish R
eR L1

start R1
Finish Y
eY L2 Load
start Y1
Finish B
eB L3
start
B1

The three winding can be represented by the above circuit. In this


case we have six wires. The emf are represented by eR , eY, eB.
e R  E m sin t
eY  E m sin( t-120  )
eB  E m sin( t-240  )
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The circuit can be simplified as follows, where R1 can be
connected to Y and Y1 can be connected to B. In this case
the circuit is reduced to 4 wires.
Finish R
eRB1  eR  eY  eB eR
start R1
Finish Y
 E m [sin t  sin( t  120 )  sin( t  240 )]
 
eY eR+eY+eB
start Y1
 Em [sin t  sin t  cos120  cos t  sin 120
 
Finish B
eB
 sin t  cos 240  cos t  sin 240 ] start
B1

 Em [sin  t  0.5sin t  0.866cos  t  0.5sin t  0.866cos t]


0
Since the total emf is zero, R and B1 can be connected together, thus
we arrive with delta connection system.
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Three-Phase Circuits
• There are two basic three-phase
connections, the wye connection and the
delta connection

15
The Wye Connection
 The wye connection is made by
connecting one end of each of the three-
phase windings together as shown

16
The Wye Connection

• The voltage measured across a single


winding or phase is known as the phase
voltage (VP).

• The voltage measured between the lines


is known as the line-to-line voltage or
simply as the line voltage (VL).

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Voltage And Current
Relationship in a
Wye Connection
IR
R

IL = IP
ZR VR

N
IN
VRY
VBR VL  3VP
VY
ZB ZY IY
VB
B
Y
VYB
IB

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Balanced Three Phase
• Balanced three phase voltages are equal
in magnitude and are out of phase with
each other by 120o.

• A balanced load is one which the phase


impedances are equal magnitude and in
phase.

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The instantaneous current in loads L1 , L2 and L3 are

R
iR
i R  I m sin t R

Line conductors
R1
iY  I m sin( t-120 ) N
Y1 Y Y
iY
B1
i B  I m sin( t-240 ) 

B iB

i N  i R  iY  i B B

L3 L2 L1
 I m [sin t  sin( t  120 ) iR+iY+iB

 sin( t  240 )]  0

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The Wye Connection Phasor
Diagram

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•VRY, VYB and VBR are called line voltage R
VR
IR
•VR, VY and VB are called phase voltage VRY
VBR
N
Y
From Kirchoff voltage law we have VB VY IY
VYB
VRY  VR  VY  VR  (VY )
B
IB

VYB  VY  VB  VY  (VB ) VB -VY


VRY
VBR
VBR  VB  VR  VB  (VR )
-VR VR
In phasor diagram
-VB
VY

VYB 22
For balanced load VR , VY and
VB are equaled but out of phase

VR = VP30; VRY = VL30; VB -VY


VRY
VBR
VY = VP-90; VYB = VL-90;
VR
VB = VP150; VBR = VL150; -VR

-VB
therefore VY

VRY  2VR cos 30o   3 V P


VYB

VBR  2VB cos 30o   3 V P

VYB  2VY cos 30o   3 V


P

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then

VL   3 V
P

and

IL  IP

24
Example.1
Three loads, each of resistance 30Ω, are connected in
star to a 415 V, 3 –phase supply. Determine (a) the
system phase voltage, (b) the phase current and (c)
the line current.

Solution:
(a)VL= √3VP. Hence, the phase voltage,
VP = VL/VP = 415/√3 = 239.6 V or
240 to 3 sig. fig

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Example.1 cont
• Solution:
(b) Phase current, IP = VP/RP
= 240/30 = 8 A

(c) For a star connection, IP = IL hence the


line current, IL = 8A.

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Example .2
A star connected load consists of three identical coils
each of resistance 30Ω and inductance 127.3 mH. If the
line current is 5.08A, calculate the line voltage if the
supply frequency is 50 Hz.

Solution:
Inductive reactance
XL = 2πfL = 2π(50)(127.3×10-3 = 40Ω

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Example .2 con’t
Impedance of each phase
ZP  R 2  X L2  302  402  50
For a star connection :
VP
IL  IP 
ZP
Hence phase voltage,
VP  I P Z P  (5.08)(50)  254 V
Line voltage :
VL  3VP  3(254)  440V 28
The Delta (MESH) Connection
 The delta connection is made by
connecting each of the three-phase
windings in a triangular shape, like the
Greek letter delta (Δ)

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The Delta Connection
A delta (or mesh) connected load is formed when one end of the
load is connected to the start of the next load.

The line voltages are equal to the phase voltages, VL = VP.

The line and phase currents are related as follows:

I L  3I P

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Voltage And Current
Relationship in
a Delta Connection
IR
R

IRY
VL  VP
ZBR
ZRY VRY
IBR VBR
IY

B
ZYB
IYB Y
I L  3I P
VYB
IB

31
IR
R
•IR, IY and IB are called line current I1
•I1, I2 and I3 are called phase current
I3 IY
Y
From Kirchoff current law we have VP
VL
I R  I1  I3  I1  ( I 3 )
I2 IB
B
IY  I2  I1  I 2  (I1 ) IR

I B  I 3  I 2  I 3  ( I 2 )
I1
-I2 -I3
IB
In phasor diagram
I3 I2

-I1
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IY
Since the loads are balanced, the magnitude of currents are
equaled but 120o out of phase. i.e I1 =I2=I3 ,=IP Therefore:-

IR = IL30; I1 = VP30;
IY = IL-90; I2 = VP-90;
IB = IL150; I3 = VP150;
Where IP is a phase current and IL is a line current
IR
I R  2 I1 cos 30  ( 3 ) I P

I1

I Y  2 I 2 cos 30  ( 3 ) I P -I2 -I3

I B  2I 3 cos 30  
 3 I P
IB

I3 I2
Thus IR=IY=IB = IL
-I1
IY 33
Hence

IL   3 I P VL  VP

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The Delta Connection Phasor
Diagram

35
Example .3
Three identical coils each of resistance 30Ω and inductance 127.3
mH are connected in delta to a 440 V , 50 Hz, 3 – phase supply.
Determine (a) the phase current, and (b) the line current.

Solution:
Phase impedance, ZP = 50Ω (see example. 2) and for delta
connection, VP = VL.

36
Example .3 con’t
(a) Phase current ,
VP VL 440
IP     8.8 A
Z P Z P 50
(b) For delta connection,
I L  3I P  3(8.8)  15.24 A
37
Example .4
Three identical capacitors are connected in delta to
a 415 V, 50 Hz, 3 –phase supply. If the line current
is 15 A, determine the capacitance of each of the
capacitors.

38
Example .4 solution
For a delta connection I L  3I P .
Hence pha se c urrent ,
I 15
IP  L   8.66 A
3 3
Capacitive reac tan ce per pahse,
V V
XC  P  L
IP IP
(sin ce for a delta connection VL  VP ) Hence
415
XC   47.92
8.66
1
XC  fromwhich capaci tan ce,
2 fX C
1 1
C   F  66.43 F
2 fX C 2 (50)( 47.92)
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Power in three phase
Active power per phase = IPVP x power factor
Total active power= 3VPIP x power factor

P  3VP I P cos 
If IL and VL are rms values for line current and line voltage
respectively. Then for delta () connection: VP = VL and IP
= IL/3. therefore:
P  3VL I L cos 

For star connection () : VP = VL/3 and IP = IL. therefore:

P  3VL I L cos 
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Advantages of Three Phase
Systems
• Advantages of three-phase systems
over single-phase supplies include:

1. For a given amount of power transmitted


through a system, the three-phase
system requires conductors with a
smaller cross-sectional area. This means
a saving of copper (aluminium) and thus
the original installation costs are less.
41
Advantages of Three Phase
Systems Con’t
2. Two voltages are available.

3. Three-phase motors are very robost,


relatively cheap, generally smaller, have
self-starting properties, provide a
steadier output and require little
maintenance compared with single-
phase motors.

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8. Measurement of power in 3-phase
Systems
Practically, there
are 2 popular
methods

One Wattmeter Two Wattmeter


Method* Method

*Can be 3
wattmeter
method, if we’ve
3 meters

For star-connected balanced load, with For balanced/unbalanced load, star


neutral point accessible or delta 43
One Wattmeter Method

If a wattmeter W is connected with its current


coil in one line and the voltage circuit between
that line and the neutral point, the reading on
the wattmeter gives the power per phase:

♦Total active power = 3 x wattmeter reading

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Two Wattmeter Method

♦Total active power


= Wattmeter 1 reading + Wattmeter 2 reading

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•Sometimes, with analog wattmeters, one of the meter
will read backward.
•To get an upscale reading, reverse either its voltage
or current connection. Then, the put the negative sign
in front of the reading. Example: - 400W
Example:
1. In two wattmeter method, the readings are 2 kW and 5
kW respectively. What is the total active power?
Ans: 7 kW

2. In two wattmeter method, the readings are 5 kW and


-2 kW respectively. What is the total active power?
Ans: 3 kW
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•From the two wattmeter method, we can get power
factor by using

Formulas “Ratio of wattmeter readings vs PF” graph

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1. Formulas:
Detail can be obtained in Hughes reference book, page 664
1
♦ Power Factor = 2
 Plow 
1 
 Phigh 
1  3 
Plow
1 
 Phigh 
 

 Phigh  Plow 
♦ tan Φ = 3  Once u get the Φ, PF
P P  can be obtained.
 high low 
PF = cos Φ

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Example:
The input power to a three-phase motor was measured by the 2-wattmeter
method. The readings were 5.2kW an -1.7kW, and the line voltage was 400V.
Calculate:
a) The total active power
b) The total power factor
c) The line current

Answer:
a) PT = 5.2 + ( -1.7) = 3.5 kW

1 1
b) Use any method;   0.281
2 2
  1.7   1  0.3269 
1  1  3 
1  3 5.2   1  0.3269 
 1   1.7 
 
 5.2 

b) PT = 1.73 x IL x VL x cosΦ
3500 = 1.73 x IL x 400 x 0.281
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IL= 18A
Summary
1. The voltages of a three-phase system are 120° out of
phase with each other.

2. The two types of three-phase connections are wye and


delta.

3. Wye connections are characterized by the fact that one


terminal of each device is connected together.

4. In a wye connection, the phase voltage is less than the


line voltage by a factor of √3. The phase current and
line current are the same.

5. In a delta connection, the phase voltage is the same as


the line voltage. The phase current is less than the line
current by a factor of √3.
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