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# Chapter Objectives

##  Understand the concepts of normal and shear stress

 Analyze and design of members subjected on axial load
or shear

In-class Activities
1. Check homework, if any
3. Applications
4. Normal Stress
5. Shear Stress
6. Concept Quiz

kN and 500mm²?

a) 0.02 kPa

b) 20 Pa

c) 20 kPa

d) 200 N/mm²

e) 20 MPa

## 2. What is the average shear stress in the

internal vertical surface AB (or CD), if
F=20kN, and AAB=ACD=1000mm²?

a) 20 N/mm²

b) 10 N/mm²

c) 10 kPa

d) 200 kN/m²

e) 20 MPa

APPLICATIONS

## Where does the average normal stress occur?

APPLICATIONS (cont)

Will the total shear force over the anchor length be equal to
the total tensile force σtensile A in the bar?

APPLICATIONS

AVERAGE NORMAL STRESS

Will the total shear force over the anchor length be equal to
the total tensile force σtensile A in the bar?

P

A

NORMAL SHEAR STRESS
Fx
 zx  lim
Fz A0 A
 z  lim
A0 A Fy
 zy  lim
A0 A

EXAMPLE 1
The bar in Fig. 1–16a has a constant width of 35 mm and a
thickness of 10 mm. Determine the maximum average
normal stress in the bar when it is subjected to the loading
shown.

EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
Solutions
• By inspection, different sections have different internal forces.

## • Graphically, the normal force diagram is as shown.

EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
Solutions

PBC  30 kN
• Since the cross-sectional area of the bar is constant, the largest
average normal stress is

PBC 30103 
 BC    85.7 MPa (Ans)
A 0.0350.01

DESIGN OF SIMPLE CONNECTION
• For normal force requirement
FFail  fail P
F .S .  F .S .  A
Fallow  allow  allow

## • For shear force requirement

 fail A
V
F .S . 
 allow allow

EXAMPLE 2
The rigid bar AB shown in Fig. 1–29a is supported by a steel
rod AC having a diameter of 20 mm and an aluminum block
having a cross sectional area of 1800mm2. The 18-mm-
diameter pins at A and C are subjected to single shear. If the
failure stress for the steel and aluminum    680 MPa is and st fail

 al  fail  70 MPa respectively, and the failure shear stress for each
pin is   900 MPa , determine the largest load P that can be
fail

## applied to the bar. Apply a factor of safety of FS=2.

EXAMPLE 2 (cont)
Solutions
• The allowable stresses are
 st  fail
 st allow  680
  340 MPa
F .S . 2
 al  fail 70
 al allow    35 MPa
F .S . 2
 fail 900
 allow    450 MPa
F .S . 2

##   M B  0; P1.25  FAC 2  0 (1)

  M A  0; FB 2  P0.75  0 (2)

EXAMPLE 2 (cont)
Solutions
• We will now determine each value of P that creates the allowable stress
in the rod, block, and pins, respectively.

 
• For rod AC, FAC   st allow AAC   340106  0.012  106.8 kN

106.82  171 kN
• Using Eq. 1, P  1.25

## • For block B, FB   al allow AB  35106 180010 6   63.0 kN

63.02  168 kN
• Using Eq. 2, P  0.75

EXAMPLE 2 (cont)
Solutions

• For pin A or C, V  FAC   allowA  450106  0.0092  114.5 kN 
114.52  183 kN
• Using Eq. 1, P 
1.25

• When P reaches its smallest value (168 kN), it develops the allowable
normal stress in the aluminium block. Hence,

P  168 kN (Ans)

CONCEPT QUIZ

## 1) The thrust bearing is subjected to the loads

as shown. Determine the order of average
normal stress developed on cross section
through BC and D.

a) C>B>D

b) C>D>B

c) B>C>D

d) D>B>C