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Oleh :

Dr. M Najib, STP, MM


Dr. Eko Rudi Cahyadi, S Hut, MM
Lindawati Kartika, SE, M.Si
M Syaefudin Andrianto, STP, M.Si

1
Strategy Analysis & Choice

Nature of Strategy Analysis & Choice

-- Establishing long-term objectives


-- Generating alternative strategies
-- Selecting strategies to pursue
-- Best alternative - achieve mission &
objectives

Ch 6 -2 Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall


Strategy Analysis & Choice
Alternative Strategies Derive From --

 Vision
 Mission
 Objectives
 External audit
 Internal audit
 Past successful strategies

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -3


Strategy Analysis & Choice

Generating Alternatives --

Participation in generating alternative


strategies should be as broad as
possible

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -4


Comprehensive Strategy-Formulation
Framework

Stage 1:
The Input Stage

Stage 2: Stage 3:
The Matching Stage The Decision Stage

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -5


The Input Stage
EFE IFE CPM

The Matching Stage


Grand Strategy
TOWS Matrix Space Matrix BCG Matrix IE Matrix
Matrix

The Decision Stage


Quantitative Strategy Planning Matrix (QSPM)

6
Strategy-Formulation Analytical
Framework
Internal Factor Evaluation
Matrix (IFE)

Stage 1: External Factor Evaluation


The Input Stage Matrix (EFE)

Competitive Profile Matrix


(CPM)

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -8


THE INPUT STAGE
 Digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi para pesaing
utama perusahaan mengenai kekuatan dan
kelemahan mereka dalam hubungannya dengan
posisi strategis perusahaan
 Bobot, rating dan skor memiliki maksud yang
sama. Rating dan skor untuk perusahaan-
perusahaan pesaing dapat dibandingkan dengan
perusahaan yang diteliti
 Critical success factor (CSF) pada CPM lebih luas
tapi akibatnya data kurang spesifik dan kurang
aktual
 CSF pada CPM tidak dikelompokkan ke dalam
kekuatan dan kelemahan
CSF Bobot Perusahaan Contoh Pesaing 1 Pesaing 2

Rating Skor Rating Skor Rating Skor

Market 0,20 3 0,6 2 0,4 2 0,4


share
Price 0,20 1 0,2 4 0,8 1 0,2
competitive
ness
Financial 0,40 2 0,8 1 0,4 4 1,6
position
Product 0,10 4 0,4 3 0,3 3 0,3
quality
Consumer 0,10 3 0,3 3 0,3 3 0,3
loyalty
Total 1,00 2,3 2,2 2,8
 Posisi keuangan perusahaan merupakan CSF
yang paling penting seperti ditunjukkan oleh
bobot sebesar 0,40
 Bagi “perusahaan contoh”, rating yang paling
tinggi untuk CSF-nya adalah product quality
dengan nilai 4. Pesaing 1 adalah price
competitiveness dan perusahaan 2
merupakan perusahaan terkuat secara
keseluruhan seperti ditunjukkan oleh total
skor sebesar 2,8
Strategy-Formulation Analytical
Framework
SWOT Matrix

SPACE Matrix

Stage 2: BCG Matrix


The Matching Stage

IE Matrix

Grand Strategy Matrix

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -13


SPACE Matrix
Strategic Position & Action Evaluation Matrix

Aggressive
Conservative
Defensive
Competitive

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -14


SPACE Matrix

Two Internal Dimensions

Financial Strength (FS)


Competitive Advantage (CA)

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -15


SPACE Matrix

Two External Dimensions

Environmental Stability (ES)


Industry Strength (IS)

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -16


Internal Strategic Position External Strategic Position

Financial Strength (FS) Environmental Stability (ES)

Technological changes
Return on investment
Rate of inflation
Leverage
Demand variability
Liquidity
Price range of competing products
Working capital
Barriers to entry
Cash flow
Competitive pressure
Price elasticity of demand
Ease of exit from market
Risk involved in business

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -17


Internal Strategic Position External Strategic Position

Competitive Advantage CA Industry Strength (IS)

Market share Growth potential


Product quality Profit potential
Product life cycle Financial stability
Customer loyalty Technological know-how
Competition’s capacity utilization Resource utilization
Technological know-how Ease of entry into market
Control over suppliers & distributors Productivity, capacity utilization

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -18


1. Select a set of variables to define FS, CA,
ES, & IS
2. Assign a numerical value:
1. From +1 to +6 to each FS & IS dimension
2. From -1 to -6 to each ES & CA dimension
3. Compute an average score for each FS, CA,
ES, & IS

Ch 6 -19 Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall


1. Plot the average score on the appropriate
axis
2. Add the two scores on the x-axis and plot
the point. Add the two scores on the y-axis
and plot the point. Plot the intersection of
the new xy point
3. Draw a directional vector from the origin
through the new intersection point.

Ch 6 -20 Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall


FS
Conservative Aggressive
+6
+5
+4
+3
+2
+1

CA IS
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6

-2
-3

-4
-5
Defensive Competitive
-6
ES
Ch 6 -21 Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall
FS : Rating ES Rating
Rasio Likuiditas 6 Tekanan persaingan -4
Rasio Aktivitas 6 Ragam permintaan -2
Rasio keuntungan 5 Elastisias harga permintaan -3
Rasio Pertumbuhan 5 Perubahan teknologi -3
22 -12

IS : Rating CA Rating
Potensi pertumbuhan 5 Pangsa Pasar -5
Potensi profit 5 Mutu Produk -2
Kemudahan masuk ke dalam pasar 3 Kesetiaan konsumen -1
Produktivitas, pemanfaatan kapasitas 3 Kendali atas pemasok dan distributor -4
16 Utilisasi kapasitas pesaing -3
-15

FS
+6

Rating rata-rata : FS 22 : 4 = 5,5 Conservative Aggresive

ES -12 : 4 = -3 + 2

Vektor Arah Y = 2,5


IS
Rating rata-rata : IS 16 : 4 = 4 CA- 6 0 1 +6
CA -15 : 5 = -3 +
Vektor Arah X = +1
Defensive Competitive

-6
ES
Strategy-Formulation Analytical
Framework
SWOT Matrix

SPACE Matrix

Stage 2: BCG Matrix


The Matching Stage

IE Matrix

Grand Strategy Matrix

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -23


BCG Matrix

Boston Consulting Group Matrix


Enhances multi-divisional firm in formulating
strategies
Autonomous divisions = business portfolio
Divisions may compete in different industries
Focus on market-share position & industry
growth rate

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -24


BCG Matrix

Relative Market Share Position

Ratio of a division’s own market share in an


industry to the market share held by the largest
rival firm in that industry

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -25


Relative Market Share Position
High Medium Low
1.0 .50 0.0

High
+20
Stars Question Marks
Industry Sales Growth Rate

II I
Medium
0

Cash Cows Dogs


III IV
Low
-20

Ch 6 -26 Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall


BCG Matrix

Question Marks
Low relative market share – compete in high-
growth industry
Cash needs are high
Case generation is low

Decision to strengthen (intensive strategies) or


divest

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -27


BCG Matrix

Stars
High relative market share and high growth
rate
Best long-run opportunities for growth &
profitability

Substantial investment to maintain or


strengthen dominant position
Integration strategies, intensive strategies, joint
ventures

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -28


BCG Matrix

Cash Cows
High relative market share, competes in low-
growth industry
Generate cash in excess of their needs
Milked for other purposes

Maintain strong position as long as possible


Product development, concentric diversification
If weakens—retrenchment or divestiture

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -29


BCG Matrix

Dogs

Low relative market share & compete in slow


or no market growth
Weak internal & external position

Liquidation, divestiture, retrenchment

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -30


Strategy-Formulation Analytical
Framework
SWOT Matrix

SPACE Matrix

Stage 2: BCG Matrix


The Matching Stage

IE Matrix

QSPM

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -31


Strategy-Formulation Analytical
Framework

Quantitative Strategic
Stage 3:
Planning Matrix
The Decision Stage
(QSPM)

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -33


QSPM

Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix

Technique designed to determine the relative


attractiveness of feasible alternative actions

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -34


Strategic Alternatives

Key External Factors Weight Strategy 1 Strategy 2 Strategy 3


Economy
Political/Legal/Governmental
Social/Cultural/Demographic/En
vironmental
Technological
Competitive

Key Internal Factors


Management
Marketing
Finance/Accounting
Production/Operations
Research and Development
Computer Information Systems

Ch 6 -35 Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall


1. Make a list of the firm’s key external
opportunities/threats and internal
strengths/weaknesses in the left column
2. Assign weights to each key external and
internal factor
3. Examine the Stage 2 (matching) matrices,
and identify alternative strategies that the
organization should consider implementing

Ch 6 -36 Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall


4. Determine the Attractiveness Scores
5. Compare the Total Attractiveness Scores
6. Compute the Sum Total Attractiveness
Score

Ch 6 -37 Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall


CSF Bobot Strategi Strategi Strategi

Pertumbuhan Intensif Pertumbuhan integratif Diversifikasi

AS TAS AS TAS AS TAS

Peluang
Pertumbuhan 0,15 4 0,60 4 0,60 2 0,30
pasar yang baik
Trend eskpor 0,10 4 0,40 4 0,40 2 0,20
meningkat terus
Pelanggan setia 0,15 4 0,60 3 0,45 1 0,15
di luar negeri
Apresiasi US$ 0,05 3 0,15 3 0,15 3 0,15

Kebijakan 0,05 4 0,20 3 0,15 3 0,15


Pemerintah
Ancaman
Persaingan 0,20 3 0,60 4 0,80 3 0,60

Hambatan 0,10 2 0,10 2 0,10 2 0,10


perdagangan
internasional
Kepercayaan luar 0,15 2 0,30 2 0,30 2 0,30
negeri
Pasokan bahan 0,05 3 0,15 4 0,20 2 0,10
baku dari
supplier
Pemulihan 0,05 3 0,15 3 0,15 4 0,20
ekonomi
domestik
CSF Bobot Strategi Strategi Strategi

Pertumbuhan Intensif Pertumbuhan integratif Diversifikasi

AS TAS AS TAS AS TAS

Kekuatan
Pertumbuhan 0,15 4 0,60 4 0,60 - -
Penjualan
Kinerja Keuangan 0,15 4 0,60 4 0,60 2 0,30

Pertumbuhan 0,10 4 0,40 4 0,40 - -


harga saham di
Bursa
Manajemen 0,10 3 0,30 3 0,30 4 0,40

Kualitas produk 0,05 4 0,20 3 0,10 2 0,10

Kelemahan
Ketergantungan 0,10 3 0,30 4 0,40 3 0,20
bahan baku
Jaringan distribusi 0,15 4 0,60 4 0,60 2 0,45
internasional
Pangsa pasar 0,05 3 0,15 3 0,15 2 0,10

Pemasaran 0,05 3 0,15 3 0,15 2 0,15

Kapasitas produksi 0,10 3 0,30 4 0,40 4 0,20

TOTAL 6,85 7,00 4,15


QSPM

Limitations

Requires intuitive judgments & educated


assumptions
Only as good as the prerequisite inputs

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -40


QSPM

Advantages

Sets of strategies considered simultaneously or


sequentially
Integration of pertinent external & internal
factors in the decision making process

Copyright 2007 Prentice Hall Ch 6 -41


 Writea paper of Strategy Formulation
Analysis of the Company
“Let your plans be dark and impenetrable as
night, and when you move, fall like a
thunderbolt.”
― Sun Tzu, The Art of War