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Formation of

Sedimentary
Rocks
Classification of Sedimentary
Rocks

Clastic
Sedimentary

Chemical
Sedimentary
Formation of Clastic Sediment &
Sedimentary Rock

Weatherin Transport Depositio Lithificati


g Erosion ati-on n on
Weathering

Physical weathering
 Disintegration of rocks and minerals by a physical
or mechanical process

Chemical weathering
 Chemical alteration or decomposition of rocks and
minerals
Physical Weathering
The mechanical breakup or disintegration of rock doesn’t
change mineral makeup. It creates detritus, which are
classified by size:
• Coarse-grained – Boulders, Cobbles, and Pebbles.
• Medium-grained – Sand
• Fine-grained – Silt and clay (mud).

Development Crystal Thermal Root Animal Frost


of Joints Growth Expansion Wedging Activity Wedging
Chemical Weathering
Many rocks and minerals are formed under conditions present deep within the
Earth when they arrive near the surface as a result of uplift and erosion, they
encounter conditions very different from those under which they originally
formed.
Those are:
• Lower Temperature (Near the surface T = 0-50ᵒC)
• Lower Pressure (Near the surface P = 1 to several hundred atmospheres)
• Higher free water
• Higher free oxygen
Transportation

 Sediment can be transported by:


 sliding down slopes,
 being picked up by the wind, or
 by being carried by running water in streams, rivers, or ocean
currents.
 The distance the sediment is transported and the energy of the
transporting medium all leave clues in the final sediment.
Deposition
 Sediment is deposited when the energy of the transporting
medium becomes too low to continue the transport process.
 If the velocity of the transporting medium becomes too low to
transport sediment, the sediment will fall out and become
deposited.
 The final sediment thus reflects the energy of the transporting
medium.

Erosion
 The combination of weathering and movement of the resulting
sediments.
Lithification
 Compaction

o Occurs after the sediments have been deposited. The weight of the sediments
squeezes the particles together. As more and more sediments are deposited the
weight on the sediments below increases. Waterborne sediments become so tightly
squeezed together that most of the water is pushed out.

 Cementation

o Happens as dissolved minerals become deposited in the spaces between the


sediments. These minerals act as glue or cement to bind the sediments together.

o Affecting factors: Oxidizing Environment & Reducing Environment.

The process of sedimentary rock formation takes millions of years to complete only to
begin a new cycle of rock formation.
Chemical Sediments & Sedimentary
Rocks
 Dissolved ions released into water by the weathering process are carried in
streams or groundwater.

 When water evaporates or the concentration of the ions get too high, the ions
recombine by chemical precipitation to form minerals and become chemical
sediments and chemical sedimentary rocks.

 Among these are:

o Evaporites
o Formed by evaporation of sea water or lake water.
o Produces halite (salt) and gypsum deposits by chemical precipitation as
concentration of solids increases due to water loss by evaporation.
o Travertine
o Groundwater containing dissolve Calcium and bicarbonate ions can
precipitate calcite to form a chemically precipitated limestone, called
travertine.
o This can occur in lakes, hot springs, and caves.

o Dolostones
o Limestone that have been chemically modified by Mg-rich fluids flowing
through the rock are converted to dolostones.
o CaCO3 is recrystallized to a new mineral dolomite CaMg (CO3)2.

o Chemical Cherts
o Groundwater flowing through rock can precipitate SiO2 to replace minerals
that were present. This produces a non-biogenic chert. There are many
varsities of such chert that are given different names depending on their
attributes.
 For example:
o Flint –Black or gray from organic matter.
o Jasper –Red or yellow from Fe oxides.
o Petrified wood –Wood grain preserved by silica.
o Agate –Concentrically layered rings