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Animal Behavior

Elements of Behavior
• Behavior: way and organism reacts to
change in its internal condition or external
environment
• Stimulus vs. Response
Innate Behavior
• An instinct
Appears the first time the behavior is
performed even though the animals has
no experience with the situation or
behavior.
Ex. Sucking of a newborn
• Spider weaving a web
Learned Behavior
• Animals alter their behavior as a result of
experience
5 MAJOR Types of Learning
• Habituation
• Classical conditioning
• Operant conditioning
• Insight
• Trial and error
Habituation
• Simplest
• The animal gets use to the stimulus
It is not positive or negative.
Reaction to a non-threatening or
unrewarding stimulus
Ex. Jane Goodall studying chimps
Classical Conditioning
• An animal makes a connection with a
stimulus by reward or punishment
Ex. Russian Scientist: Ivan Pavlov
• Rang a bell when he fed his dog
• Repeated this
• Dog would salivate when the bell rang
regardless of presence of food
Operant Conditioning
• Animal learns to behave a certain way
over repeated practices > to receive an
award or avoid a punishment
• Ex. Training a dog to sit.
Imprinting
• Form of learning in which a very young
animal fixes its attention on the first object
with which it has visual, auditory, or tactile
experience and thereafter follows that
object.
• Ex: ducks following the first moving object
(their mother) They have been known to
think humans were their mothers.
Trial and error
• Trial and error, or trial by error, is an
experimental method of problem solving,
repair, tuning, or obtaining knowledge.
• "Learning doesn't happen from failure itself
but rather from analyzing the failure,
making a change, and then trying again”

• Trial and error has traditionally been the


main method of finding new drugs, such
as antibiotics
Taxis
Taxis is an innate behavior response by an
organism to a directional stimulus.
Examples:
Chemotaxis is a migratory response that is
elicited by chemicals such as increase in
glucose or pH.
Phototaxis is the movement of an organism
in response to light
• Negative phototaxis, or movement away
from a light source, is demonstrated in
some insects, such as cockroaches.[3]
• Positive phototaxis, or movement
towards a light source, is advantageous
for phototrophic organisms as they can
orient themselves most efficiently to
receive light for photosynthesis.
• Reflex, is an involuntary and nearly
instantaneous movement in response to a
stimulus.
Pheromones
• is a secreted or excreted chemical factor
that triggers a social response in members
of the same species.
Used to attract a mate
Increase aggression ( killer bees, fire ants)
Alarms trigger flight or fight in species
Patterns of Behavior
Behavioral Cycles:
• Migration
• Circadian Rhythms: behavioral cycles that
occur in daily patterns (ex. Sleeping and
going to school at the same time every
day)
• Hibernation : inactivity and metabolic
depression in animals, characterized by
lower body temperature, slower breathing,
and lower metabolic rate.
• Estivation: hibernation takes place during
times of heat and dryness, the hot dry
season.
Courtship
• Occurs when an individual send out stimuli
(sounds, visual displays, chemicals) in
order to attract a mate
Social Behavior
• Animal societies help enhance the
success of individuals
• Primates exhibit a close family structure
Jane Goodall (a British behaviorist) studied
the chimpanzee in its natural habitat and
revolutionized the field
Competition and Aggression
• Some animals are territorial
• Use aggression to defend territory and
family
Communication
• Animals may use visual, sound, touch or
chemical signals to communicate
Dominance Hierachy
• The dominance hierachy is a social
system to keep animals in a group from
constantly fighting. It is a way for them to
get along and know exactly where their
place in the group is.
• This was first studied in chickens, so it is
also called a pecking order.
Caste System
• Insects such as bees, ants, termites, wasp
are known for their colonial caste systems
• Queen- reproduction
• Workers- queen’s caretaker, gather food,
fan the hive
• Soldiers – defenders of the colony