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# Data Analysis

## Type of Data ( measurement scale)

1. Nominal scale- used for labeling variables without quantitative value
(leveling=nominal=name) e.g. Sex, Blood type
2. Ordinal – the order of the values is what’s important & significant, but
the differences between each one is not really known (Ordinal=order)
e.g.mid, moderate, severe; baby, infant, child, adult, geriatrics
3. Interval-numeric scales in which we know not only the order, but also the
exact difference between the values (Interval=space between) no true O,
e.g Temp., time
4. Ratio- tell us about order, exact value between units, have absolute O.
e.g Ht, wt, HR,
One variable in different type of scale
Example: Height
Ratio scale: The height of individual above the ground, e.g 180 cm
Interval scale: The height of the individual above the arbitrary surface
e.g. 100 cm above the surface of a bench
Ordinal scale: the comparative heights of the individual e.g tallest to
shortest
Nominal scale: Categorizing individual e.g. Normal, abnormal
Measure of Central Tendency
Statistics or numbers expressing the most typical or representative
score in data distribution
1. Mode- most frequently occurring score or category
2. Median – the score that divides the distributions into half
3. Mean – sum of all the score divided by the number of scores
Measure of Variability
Statistics representing the extent to which scores are dispersed (or spread
out) numerically
1. Range- the difference between the highest & lowest score in a
distribution
2. Variance-the sum of the squared deviation about the mean divided by
the number of cases
3. Standard deviation – square root of the variance, reflects the spread or
dispersion of the frequency distribution representative of the data.
4. Interquartile- used when the median is the appropriate measure of
central tendency
Selection of the appropriate inferential test
2 groups 3 or more groups
Scale Independent Dependent Independent Dependent
Nominal X ² test McNemar’s X ² test Cochran’s Q
test test
Ordinal Mann-Whiteney Sign test Kruskal-Waliis Friedman 2-
U test test way analysis
of variance
Interval or t test t test ANOVA (F) ANOVA(F)
Ratio (independent grp) (dependent grp) (independent grp) (dependent grp)
Identify the type of data/scale
1. Heart rate
2. Religion
3. Satisfied, undecided, dissatisfied
4. Cause of death
5. Temperature
6. IQ
7. Protein contents of food
8. Student’s number
9. Honor students
10. Patient’name
Identify the type of data/scale
1. Heart rate - Ratio
2. Religion – Nominal
3. Satisfied, undecided, dissatisfied -Ordinal
4. Cause of death - Nominal
5. Temperature - Interval
6. IQ - Interval
7. Protein contents of food - Ratio
8. Student’s number - Nominal
9. Honor students -Ordinal
10. Patient ‘s name - Nominal