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ADHESIVE SCIENCE 101

for the FLOOR COVERING INSTALLER

Jeffrey B Johnson
FCIS & DIY Business Marketing Manager
MAPEI Corporation
The SCIENCE of BONDING

• What is the function of


a flooring adhesive?
– Gravity Assist
– Structural support
The SCIENCE of BONDING

• Types of adhesive
bonds
– Mechanical
– Chemical
• Ionic
• Covalent
• Van Der Waals
The SCIENCE of Bonding

• Adhesive Failure Modes


– Cohesive
– Adhesive

• As a general design rule,


the material properties of
the object need to be
greater than the forces
anticipated during its use.
(i.e. geometry, loads,
etc.).
Types of ADHESIVES

• Non-Reactive
– Drying Adhesives
– Pressure Sensitive
Adhesives
– Contact Adhesives
– Hot-Melt Adhesives
• Reactive
– Two Component
– One Component
CURING Mechanisms

• Non Reactive
– Drying Adhesives
• Evaporation
• Coalescence
– Pressure Sensitive
Adhesives
• Tapes
– Contact Adhesives
– Hot-Melt Adhesives
CURING Mechanisms

• Reactive
– Two Component
• Chemical reaction
between two (or more)
chemical compounds
– One Component
• Chemical reaction
between a prepolymer
and moisture (H2O)
• Anaerobic adhesive cures
in the absence of O2.
ADHESIVE Chemical Bases

• Natural
– Plant based, animal based
• Solvent Based
– Nitrile, Neoprene, SBR,
Asphaltic, Acrylic, PVA
• Latex
– SBR, Acrylic, PVA
• Thermoplastic
– Ethylene Vinyl Acetate
• Reactive
– Epoxy, Urethane
ADHESIVE Chemistry
• Components for solvent
based adhesives consist
of:
– Rubber
– Solvent
– Filler
– “mummy dust”
• Performance attributes:
– Fast drying
– Flammable
– Moisture resistant
– Contact cements,
construction adhesives
ADHESIVE Chemistry

• How solvent based • Things that effect


adhesives work solvent based adhesive
– Dry by solvent performance
evaporation – Temperature
– As solution concentrates – Moisture
due to evaporation the – Ignition sources
adhesive mass builds
viscosity and develops
green strength.
– Excellent wetting
characteristics
ADHESIVE Chemistry
• Components for SBR
Multipurpose Flooring
Adhesives
– SBR Latex
– Hydrocarbon Resin FILLER LATEX
– Process Oil
– Filler
– Water
• Performance Attributes:
– Leggy
– Durable
– Inexpensive OIL HYDROCARBON RESIN
– Designed for felt backed and
fibrous backed flooring
ADHESIVE Chemistry

• How SBR latex • Things that effect SBR


adhesives work adhesive performance
– Dry by water – pH of substrate
evaporation and – Contaminants
coalescence – Excess shear
– Resin solution emulsion – Temperature
breaks destabilizing the
blend which results in – Moisture
“leg” development – Plasticizer Migration
ADHESIVE Chemistry
• Components for an acrylic
adhesive:
– Latex acrylic polymers
– Fillers
– Water
– “Mummy Dust”
• Performance Attributes
– Plasticizer resistant
SOFT SET / PSA
– Alkali resistant
– Oxidation resistant
HARD SET
– Expensive
– Designed for vinyl backed
flooring
– Non-legging
ADHESIVE Chemistry

• How acrylic latex • Things that effect


adhesives work acrylic adhesive
– Dry by water performance
evaporation and – pH of substrate
coalescence – Contaminants
– Polymer structure and Tg – Temperature
determine final
– Moisture
performance
• Hard set
• Pressure sensitive
ADHESIVE Chemistry
• Components for hot melt
adhesives
– EVA resin
– Wax
– Tackifiers
– Plasticizers
• Performance attributes
– Solid at room temperature
but become fluid at
temperatures above 180F
– Cool quickly to solid phase
– Can be brittle at very cold
temperatures
– Can soften at higher
temperatures
ADHESIVE Chemistry

• How hot melt adhesive • Things that effect hot


work melt adhesive
– Become fluid with heat performance
and cool to a solid – Temperature
• Performance attributes – Moisture
– Rapid bond performance – Surface contaminants
– Plasticizers
ADHESIVE Chemistry
• Epoxy Adhesives
– Reactive adhesives by the
combination of an epoxy resin
and a basic (pH) hardener
(amine)
• Performance Attributes
– Extremely high bond strengths
– 100% solids
– Bonds to many types of
materials
– EXOTHERMIC!
– Can cause allergic reaction
– No “green strength”
– Mass dependent for curing
(temperature)
ADHESIVE Chemistry

• How epoxy adhesives • Things that effect epoxy


work adhesive performance
– Cure by chemical – Temperature
reaction – Moisture
– Epoxy resin reacts with – Improper mixing
amine based hardener
to create thermoset
adhesive
ADHESIVE Chemistry
• Urethane Adhesives
– Reaction of isocyante group
(NCO) and hydroxol (OH)
– Releases CO2 when reaction
occurs with water.
• Performance Attributes
– 100% solids, no solvents, no
water
– Superior bond and tensile
strengths
– Very resilient
– Moisture resistant when
cured
– Expensive
– Can be hazardous
ADHESIVE Chemistry

• How urethane • Things that effect


adhesives work urethane adhesive
– Cures upon exposure to performance
moisture or – Moisture (excess or lack
– Cures when mixed (Part thereof)
A/B) – Contaminants
– Temperature
RULES that Regulate Adhesives

• RULE 1168
RULES that Regulate Adhesives
• PROP 65
• Proposition 65, the Safe
Drinking Water and Toxic
Enforcement Act of 1986, was
enacted as a ballot initiative in
November 1986. The
Proposition was intended by
its authors to protect
California citizens and the
State's drinking water sources
from chemicals known to
cause cancer, birth defects or
other reproductive harm, and
to inform citizens about
exposures to such chemicals.

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STANDARDS for Adhesives

• ASTM D7799-12
• Standard Specification for
Tufted and Woven
Broadloom Carpet
Adhesives Without
Homogenous PVC or Non-
PVC Backings
When to USE WHAT, and Why

Flooring Type

Vinyl Backed Fibrous Backed Solid Vinyl


Adhesive Type Carpet Engineered Wood Solid Wood Bamboo
Carpet Resilient Flooring Flooring

Solvent Based YES NO NO NO NO NO NO

SBR Latex Based YES NO YES NO YES NO NO

ACRYLIC Latex Based YES YES YES YES YES NO NO

HOT MELT YES NO NO YES NO NO NO

EPOXY NO NO YES YES NO NO NO

URETHANE NO NO YES YES YES YES YES


When to USE WHAT, and Why

Adhesive Type CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS

Solvent Based Turn off all sources of ignition and use proper ventilation. Maintain proper temperatures during application and curing.

SBR Latex Based Do not use on plasticized flooring. Avoid introduction of contaminants during application (gypsum). Observe and follow open time and
working time information.

ACRYLIC Latex Based Observe and follow open time and working time information. Do not expose PSA adhesives for extended periods of time before
installing flooring due to dirt collection.

HOT MELT Insure proper melt temperature. Make sure materials are clean and free of contaminants

Mix properly. Maintain proper temperature control. Do not leave mixed epoxy adhesive unattended as it will generate extreme
EPOXY
amounts of heat. Use knee boards during installation process to avoid hollow spots.

Avoid the introduction of excess moisture/water. Maintain proper temperatures during application and curing. Low humidity
URETHANE
environments will slow cure rates of moisture cure urethanes.
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS!
When all else fails, and preferably before things start to fail, please read
the instructions provided by the adhesive manufacturer.
“Bond, James Bond”
Thank you for sticking with me on this tacky subject!
QUESTIONS?
I’m all ears.