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Directing and Controlling

Dr S Natarajan
Professor, Department of ISE
PESIT,Bangalore

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Directing and Controlling

 Meaning and Nature of Directing


 Leadership Styles
 Motivation Theories
 Communication- Co-ordination, Meaning and Importance of
techniques of Co-ordination
 Meaning and steps in Controlling
 Essentials of a sound control system
 Methods of establishing control(in brief)

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Directing
Meaning
1. Directing means issuance of orders, leading
and motivating
subordinates to execute orders.

2. According to Haimann
Directing consists of the process and
technique utilised in issuing instructions and
making certain that operations are carried
out as originally planned.

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Directing

According to Urwick and Beach," Directing is the


guidance, the inspiration, the leadership of those men
and women that constitutes the real core of the
responsibility of management”

According to Koontz and O’Donnell, “Directing is a


complex function that includes all those activities which
are designed to encourage subordinates to work
effectively and efficiently in both the short and long
run.” 4
Directing

Process of directing involves the following elements


- Issuing orders and instructions to subordinates
- Guiding, counseling and educating the subordinates
- Supervising the work being performed
- Maintaining discipline and rewarding those who perform
efficiently
- Motivating and inspiring the subordinates

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Nature of Directing
1. Harmony

Employee’s goals must be in harmony with Employer’s goal

Manager must take “advantage of individual motives to gain


group goals”

2. Unity of Command

3. Direct Supervision

Face to face contact with subordinates

Increases morale of subordinates and increases loyalty

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Nature of Directing (Contd..)
4. Efficient Communication

Efficient communication is a two way process

How employees feel and How company feels about


employees

Comprehension is important than content (feedback)

5. Follow Through

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Nature of Directing

 It is an initiating function

 It is a continuous process
 Directing function is performed by all managers at

every level of organization


 Time and effort spent for directing tend to increase as

one moves down the line of authority

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Nature of Directing

 Directing is a result or action oriented process.

 It connects planning, organizing and staffing with

controlling process.
 It involves giving an order

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Need and importance of directing

 Directing helps in achieving coordination

 It is means of motivation

 Directing supplements other managerial functions

 Directing helps in coping with changing environment

 Directing facilitates order and discipline among

employees

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Principles of Directing
 Harmony of objectives
 Unity of direction
 Direct supervision
 Effective communication
 Follow through

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Leadership

Leadership is an influence, the art or process of


influencing people so that they will strive willingly &
enthusiastically toward the achievement of group goals.
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Leadership
Definitions:
1. According to Peter Drucker
Leadership is the lifting of man’s vision to higher sights, the
raising of man’s performance to higher standard, the building of
man’s personality beyond its normal limitations.

2. According to Alford and Beatty


The ability to secure desirable actions from a group of followers
voluntarily without the use of coercion(force).

3. According to Keith Davis


Leadership is the ability to persuade others to seek defined
objectives enthusiastically. It is the human factor which binds a
group together and motivates it towards goal.

4. According to G.R. Terry


Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly
for mutual objectives.
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QUOTES ON LEADERSHIP

 Leadership is not magnetic personality—that can just as well be a glib tongue.


It is not "making friends and influencing people"—that is flattery. Leadership
is lifting a person's vision to higher sights, the raising of a person's
performance to a higher standard, the building of a personality beyond its
normal limitations. ….. Peter F. Drucker
 Good leaders make people feel that they're at the very heart of things, not
at the periphery. Everyone feels that he or she makes a difference to the
success of the organization. When that happens people feel centered and
that gives their work meaning…. Warren Bennis
 Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other….
John F. Kennedy

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OUR NATIONAL LEADERS 15
Characteristics of Managers Versus Leader
Manager Leader
Administers Innovates
A copy An original
Maintains Develops
Focuses on systems & structure Focuses on people
Relies on control Inspires trust
Short-range view Long-range perspective
Asks how & when Asks what & why
Eye on the bottom line Eye on the horizon
Imitates Originates
Accepts the status quo Challenges the status quo
Classic good soldier Own person
Does things right Does the right thing 16
12 QUALITIES OF A GOOD LEADER

Visionary: Communicate A Vision, Purposes, Values & Aspirations

Creative: Leadership Required Imagination And Creativity

Passionate: Must Be Problem Solvers And Integrators

Trustworthy: Establishing Trusting Relationship In A Team

Competent: Technical Expertise And Knowledge

Knowledgeable: Must Be Systems Oriented

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12 QUALITIES OF A GOOD LEADER

Teacher: Leaders Create Space for Others to Lead

Inclusive: Leaders are Open to New Ideas and Opinions

Collaborative: Establish Collaborative Decision Making Processes in a

Setting

Flexible: Responsive to the Face of Change & Peoples Needs

Culturally Global Perspective

Sensitive:

Continuous Leaders Always Are Seeking New Ways to Grow

Learner:
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Leadership and leadership styles
 Leadership is a process by which a
person influences others to accomplish
an objective and directs the
organization in a way that makes it
more cohesive and coherent.

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Leadership and leadership styles
 Functions of the leader
 Taking initiative
 Guide
 Representation
 Encouraging others
 Arbitrator and mediator
 Planner
 Administrator of rewards and punishments

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Leadership Qualities Needed for Technical
Domains
1. BUSINESS LITERACY
Software operations leaders who are now technology-oriented must
increasingly see themselves as business leaders i.e., To be business
literate
2. TECHNOLOGY VISION
To help their companies compete, leaders of software operations must
establish a compelling, long-range vision for technology investments.
Visionary leaders .
3. CROSS-FUNCTIONAL ORIENTATION
The world of rigid, functional "silos" in most organizations is gone forever.
Software operations leaders must become adept at working with people
performing various functions across the enterprise, including those in
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marketing, customer support sales, and so on.
Leadership Qualities Needed for Technical
Domains
4. STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP MANAGEMENT
The need for organizations to establish partnerships and alliances for
sharing technologies and developing new products will continue to
increase. Managers of software operations will be required to develop
partnership strategies and manage them for success.
5. CUSTOMER RELATIONS
With the move to a competitive, profit-oriented business model in
software, leaders must increasingly interact directly and at higher
executive levels with both prospective and existing customers.
6. TOTAL QUALITY DISCIPLINE
Two factors have increased the urgency of quality improvement at all
levels in the software industry: rapidly growing financial investment in
software systems and products, and the institution of international
software quality standards.
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Leadership Qualities Needed for Technical
Domains

7. MARKET DECISIVENESS
Although time-to-market has always been a critical success factor for any
high-technology business, it has become a matter of survival for software
enterprises. In an increasingly competitive market, this "need for speed"
is placing increasing pressure on leaders to accelerate the development
and delivery of new products and services.

8. TECHNICAL TEAMWORK
Most high-technology organizations are moving toward flatter, team-
based work structures. This makes team communication, problem solving,
and decisiveness critical; software leaders must both model and reinforce
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these behaviors.
Leadership Qualities Needed for Technical
Domains
9. KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT
Because software is almost exclusively a "knowledge business," software
operations are competitive to the extent that they can attract, retain,
and develop the best technical and marketing talent. Thus, leaders must
provide development opportunities that will ensure the continued
professional and career growth of individuals and add to the
organization's overall knowledge store. I

10. LEADERSHIP VERSATILITY


Software development is getting more diverse and complex on many levels-
business, organizational, cultural, and technological. Managers must
become versatile to lead effectively across different business models and

work settings. 24
Leadership…

Leadership: is not ordering other people to follow.

Leadership: is not ignoring the views of other people.

Leadership: is not just a charismatic effect on other people.

Leadership: is not making more profit than the other guy.

Leadership: is situational, and requires the study of alternates.

Leadership: makes happen what other people miss,ideas.

Leadership: needs practice & learning.

Leadership: requires great listening and facilitation.

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Types of Skills used by Leaders

1) TECHNICAL SKILL:( INVOLVES THINGS)


Refers to person’s knowledge of and ability in any type of
process or technique.

2) HUMAN SKILL (CONCERNS PEOPLE)


It is the ability to work effectively with people and to build
team work.

3) CONCEPTUAL SKILL(DEALS WITH IDEAS)


It is the ability to think in terms of modules, frameworks and
broad relationships such as long-range plans. 26
Behavioral Approaches to Leadership Style

1. Positive and Negative Leaders

2. Autocratic, participative and Free-rein Leaders

Be gentle and you can be bold; be frugal and you can be liberal; avoid
putting yourself before others and you can become a leader among
men.
- Lao Tzu

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1) Positive and Negative Leaders:

 Depends on the ways leaders approach people to motivate them.

 When emphasis is placed on rewards-economic or otherwise-

Positive leadership.

- Positive leadership generally results in higher job satisfaction and

performance.

 When emphasis is placed on penalties - Negative leadership.

- It may get acceptable peformance but has high human costs.

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2) Autocratic, Participative and Free-rein
Leaders:
AUTOCRATIC LEADERS
 Centralize power and decision making in themselves.
 Leaders take full authority and assume full responsibility.
 It is negative based on threat and punishments.
Advantages:
 It is satisfying for leaders.
 permits quick decisions .
 allows the use of less competent subordinates and provide security and structure for
employees.
Disadvantages:
 Employees dislike it as it may create fear and frustration.
 Generate strong organizational commitment among employees that leads to low turnover
and absenteeism rates.

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Participative/Democratic Leaders
 Decentralize authority.
 They arise from consultation with followers and participation by them.
 Leader and group act as a social unit.
 Wider use of participative practices because they are consistent with
the supportive and collegial models of organisational behavior.

Free-rein Leaders

 Avoid power and responsibility.


 Depend largely on members train themselves and provide their
own motivation.
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 Ignores leader’s contribution
Leadership and leadership styles
 Democratic:
 Encourages decision making
from different perspectives – leadership may be
emphasised throughout the organisation
 Consultative: process of consultation before
decisions are taken
 Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to
persuade others that the decision is correct

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Leadership and leadership styles
 Democratic:
 May help motivation and involvement
 Workers feel ownership of the firm
and its ideas
 Improves the sharing of ideas
and experiences within the business
 Can delay decision making

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Leadership and leadership styles
 Free rein

Leader exercises no control
 Provides only information, material and
facilities
 Employee centered
 Disastrous if the leader if the leader does
not know the competence and integrity of
the subordinates and their ability to
handle the freedom

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THE FLOW OF INFLUENCE WITH THREE
LEADERSHIP STYLES

The only test of leadership is that somebody follows.


- Robert K. Greenleaf

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 Style is related to one’s model of organizational behavior.

 Autocratic model -> tends to produce a negative style.

 Custodial model -> somewhat positive.

 Supportive and collegial models -> clearly positive.

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Behavioral theories of Leadership

1.Ohio State Studies.

2.University of Michigan Studies.

3.Managerial Grid.

4.Scandivian.

The first responsibility of a leader is to define reality. The last


is to say thank you.
- Max DePree (The Art of Leadership)

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1.OHIO State Studies

A) Initiating structure:-The extent to which a leader is likely to

define and structure his or her role and roles of subordinates in

the search of goal attainment.

B) Consideration:-The extent to which a leader is likely to have job

relationships characterized by mutual trust,respect for

subordinates’ ideas and regard for their feelings.

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Ohio State University Model
Initiating Structure: Leader structuring job
Consideration: Leader showing trust and friendship

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2. University of Michigan Studies

A) Employee oriented :- One who emphasizes interpersonal

relations.

B) Production oriented leader :- One who emphasizes technical or

task aspects of the job.

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3. Managerial Grid

 Tool used by managers for identifying their style.

 Highlights multiple dimensions of leadership with respect to

concern for people and concern for production.

 The grid clarifies,on two 9-point scales,how the two dimensions

are related.

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Managerial Grid

C 1,9 9,9
O
N
C
E
R
N

F 5,5
O
R

P
E
O 1,1 9,1
P
L
E
CONCERN FOR TASK 41
Refer Previous Slide

 (1,9) - least concern for task and utmost concern for


people – ---- Country Club Style.
 (9,1) - least concern for people and utmost concern for
task.– ---- Produce or Perish Style
 (1,1) - least concern for people and least concern for task
--- Impoverished Style
 (5,5) - equal concern for task and people. –
--- Middle of the Road Style
 (9,9) - highest concern for both people and task --
--- Team Style . 42
High

9 1,9
Team Management9,9
Country Club Management Work accomplishment is
8 Thoughtful attention to the from committed people;
interdependence through

Managerial
needs of people for satisfying
Concern for people

relationships leads to a a “common stake” in


7 comfortable, friendly organization purpose

Grid
organization atmosphere leads to relationships
and work tempo. of trust and respect.
6
Middle of the Road
5 Management 5,5
The Leadership Grid® is
Adequate organization performance is
possible through balancing the necessity
a method of evaluating
4 leadership styles. The
to get out work with maintaining morale
of people at a satisfactory level.
Authority-Compliance Grid® is used to train
3 Efficiency in operations managers so that they
results from arranging are simultaneously more
2 Impoverished Management conditions of work in concerned for people
Exertion of minimum effort such a way that
to get required work done human elements
and for production (9,9
1 1,1 is appropriate to sustain interfere to a 9,1 style on the Grid®).
organization membership. minimum degree.

0
Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Low Concern for production High
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Source: The managerial grid was developed by Blake & Mouton; illustration adapted from Griffin, 2002
4. Scandinavian

DEVELOPMENT-ORIENTED LEADER

One who values experimentation,seeking new ideas, and

generating and implementing change.

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Use of Consideration and Structure by Leaders

(i) Consideration (employee orientation)


 considerate leaders are concerned about the human needs
of their employees.
 try to build teamwork,provide psychological support, and help
employees with their problems.

(ii) Structure (task orientation)


 believe in getting results by keeping people constantly
busy,ignoring personal issues and emotion and urging them to
produce.

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CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO
LEADERSHP STYLE

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1. Fielder Model

The theory that effective groups depend upon a proper match


between a leaders style of interacting with subordinates and the
degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the
leader.

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Leader’s Effectiveness

 Leader-member relations:
The degree of confidence,trust,and respect subordinates have in their
leader.

 Task structure:
The degree to which job assignments are procedurized.

 Leader position power:


Describes the organizational power that goes with the position the
leader occupies.

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2. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory

 Focuses on Followers Readiness.


 Followers in Leadership effectiveness reflects the
reality that it is the followers who accept or reject the
leader.
 Readiness – refers to the extent to which people have
the ability an willingness to accomplish a specific task.

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3. Leader Member Exchange Theory

 Leaders create in-groups and out-groups .

 And subordinates with in-groups status will have

higher-performance ratings,less runover.

 And greater satisfaction with their superior.

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Leader Member Exchange Theory

Personal Compatibility
Subordinate LEADER
Competence, and/or
Extroverted personality

FORMAL
TRUST RELATIONS
HIGH
INTERACTIONS

SUB-A SUB-B SUB-C SUB-D

IN-GROUPS OUT-GROUPS

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4. Path Goal Theory

 The theory that a leader’s behaviour is acceptable to

subordinates insofar as they view it as a source of


either immediate or future satisfaction.

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Path goal theory

Environmental contingency
factors
• Task structure
• Formal authority system
• Work group

Leader behaviour
• Directive Outcomes
• Achievement oriented • Performance
• Participative • Satisfaction
• supportive

Subordinate contingency factors


• Locus of control
• Experience
• Perceived ability
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NEOCHARISMATIC
LEADERSHIP
THEORIES

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5. Leader Participation Model

 A Leadership theory that provides a set of rules to


determine the form and amount of participative
decision making in different situation.

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Neocharismatic Theories

Leadership theories that emphasizes symbolism


emotional appeal,and extraordinary follower commitment.
It includes the following :

1. CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP.
2. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP.
3. VISIONARY LEADERSHIP.

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1. Charismatic Leadership
 Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary
abilities when they observe certain behaviors.

2. Transformational Leadership
 Leaders who provide individualized consideration and
intellectual stimulation and who possess charisma.

3. Visionary Leadership
 The ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible,
attractive vision of the future for an organization or
organizational unit that grows out of and improves upon the
present. 57
Contemporary Issues in Leadership

 EMOTIONAL LEADERSHIP.
 TEAM LEADERSHIP.
 MORAL LEADERSHIP.
 CROSS CULTURAL LEADERSHIP.

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1. Emotional Intelligence and Leadership

 Self awareness : self-confidence ,realistic self-assessment, self-


deprecating sense of humour.
 Self-management :trust worthiness & integrity, comfort with
ambiguity and openness to change.
 Self-motivation : a strong to drive to achieve, optimism, and high
organizational commitment.
 Empathy : expertise in building & retaining talent, cross cultural
sensitivity and service to client and customers.
 Social skills: the ability to lead change efforts, persuasiveness and
expertise in building and leading teams.

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2. Team Leadership

 Skills such as the patience to share information, to trust others,to


give up authority,and understanding when to intervene.
 Mastered the difficult balancing act of knowing when to leave
their teams alone and when to intercede.
 Roles :
1.Team leaders are liasions with external constituencies.
2. Team leaders are troubleshooters.
3. Team leaders are conflict managers.
4. Team leaders are coaches.

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3. Moral Leadership

 Ethical implications in leadership.

 Ethical leaders are considered to use their charisma in a

socially constructive way to serve others.

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4. Cross-cultural Leadership

 National culture is an important situational factor


determining which leadership style will be most effective.
 National culture affects leadership style by way of the
follower . Leaders cannot choose their styles at will. They
are constrained by the cultural conditions that their
followers have come to expect.

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EMERGING APPROACHES
TO LEADERSHIP

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Self-leadership and Super leadership

 Self leadership has two thrusts :

a) Leading oneself to perform naturally motivating tasks.

b) Managing oneself to do work that is required but not

naturally rewarding.
 Super leadership begins with a set of positive beliefs about
workers.It requires practicing self leadership oneself and
modeling it for others to see.

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Coaching

 Coaching means that the leader prepares, guides, and directs the

team, but does not play the game.

 These leaders recognise that they are on the side lines not on the

plane field.

 Their role is to select the right “players” to teach and develop

subordinates ,to be available for problem oriented consultation, to

review resource needs and to listen to inputs from employees.

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HOW TO BE A GOOD
LEADER ?

Good leaders develop through a never-ending process of self-


study, education, training, and experience.
-Manual on military leadership

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Human Behavior

Leadership: the art of getting someone else to do something


you want done because he wants to do it.
-Dwight D. Eisenhower
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Human Behaviour

Introduction : Human nature is the common qualities of all

human beings. People behave according to certain principles of

human nature. These principles govern our behavior.

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Motivation
 Motivation
 The processes that account for an
individual’s intensity, direction, and
persistence of effort toward attaining
a goal

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Needs Theories of Motivation
 Basic idea:
 Individuals have needs that, when
unsatisfied, will result in motivation
 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
 Herzberg’s two factor theory (motivation-
hygiene theory)

McClelland’s theory of needs

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

 Physiological
 Safety

 Social

 Esteem

 Self-actualization

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

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Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

1. Physiological - food, water, shelter, sex.


2. Safety - feel free from immediate danger.
3. Belongingness and love - belong to a group, close friends to confine with.
4. Esteem - feeling of moving up in world, recognition, few doubts about self.
5. Cognitive - learning for learning alone, contribute knowledge.
6. Aesthetic - at peace, more curious about inner workings of all
7. Self-actualization know exactly who you are, where you are going, and what
you want to accomplish. A state of well-being.
8. Self-transcendence - a trans egoic level that emphasizes visionary
intuition, altruism, and unity consciousness.

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Characteristics of self-actualizing people
 Have better perceptions of reality and are comfortable with it.
 Accept themselves and their own natures.
 Their lack artificiality.
 They focus on problems outside themselves and are concerned with
basic issues and eternal questions.
 They like privacy and tend to be detached.
 Rely on their own development and continued growth.
 Appreciate the basic pleasures of life (do not take blessings for
granted).
 Have a deep feeling of kinship with others.
 Are deeply democratic and are not really aware of differences.
 Have strong ethical and moral standards.
 Are original and inventive, less constricted and fresher than others
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Herzberg’s Two factor Theory
 Those that provided motivation when
they were present (Motivators)
 Those Factors that lead to job
dissatisfaction when they did not meet
expectation (Hygiene)

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 Motivators that are intrinsic to the
job
 Achievement, Recognition, Responsibility,
Work, Advancement
 Hygiene factors that are extrinsic
to the job
 Company policy, Administration,
Supervision, interpersonal relationships,
working conditions, salary, status, security

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 Motivators are the primary cause
of satisfaction
 Hygiene factors are the primary
cause of unhappiness in the job

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 Hygiene Factors:
 Physiological, safety, affiliation
 Motivators:
 Esteem, Self fulfillment

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McClelland’s Theory of Needs
 Need for Achievement
 Desire to excel, accomplishment (self-actualization)
 Need for Power
 Desire to control resources and people (esteem)
 Need for Affiliation
 Human companionship and acceptance (social)

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Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

 People are conscious agents who are


continually sizing up situations in terms of
their perceived needs and then acting in
accordance with these perceptions.
 Motivation = E x I x V
 E represents expectancy (probability of
success)
 I is instrumentality (correlation)
 V is valence (value of a particular reward)

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Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
 Instrumentality – an individual subjective
estimates that doing or not not doing an
act could result in a particular outcome.
 Expectancy – an individual subjective
estimate of whether he could undertake a
particular act and do it successfully
 Valence – the importance an individual
attaches to a particular outcome.

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Adams’s Equity Theory
 People have a need for, and therefore value and
seek, fairness in employer–employee
relationships.
 If a person perceives an inequity, a tension or
drive will develop in the person’s mind, and the
person will be motivated to reduce or eliminate
the tension and the perceived inequity.
 Employees can do this by reducing what they put into
the job, or by boosting the magnitude of the rewards
they take out (or both).
 It matters less what the reality is than how the person
perceives his or her inputs and outputs as compared
with the other (referent) person’s.

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Skinner’s Behaviour
Modification Theory
 Also known as Operant conditioning theory
 As people generally prefer pleasant outcomes to their action,
they would repeat those actions/behaviors that they have
learnt will have pleasant consequences/outcomes
 Behavior modification is possible through reinforcement or
punishment.
 Reinforcement – those outcomes that increase the frequency of
a behavior (in work situation, can be positive like praise or
monetary reward or negative like avoidance of a aversive
situation)
 Punishment – Those outcomes that decrease the frequency of a
behavior (Fine, reprimand)

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Japanese Model of Motivation
Theory Z Proposed by William Ouchi
1. Lifetime employment 7. Holistic concern and
2. Collective decision commitment
making 8. Equality
3. Collective 9. Participative
responsibility leadership
4. Non specialized 10. Care of worker’s
career path family
5. Slow evaluation & 11. Concern for young
promotion workers
6. Implicit control 12. Company wide unions
mechanisms with harmonious
relations
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Key Traits of Successful Leaders

Leadership consists not in degrees of technique but in traits of


character; it requires moral rather than athletic or intellectual
effort, and it imposes on both leader and follower alike the
burdens of self restraint.
- Lewis H. Lapham

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Key Traits of Successful Leaders

 Emotional stability.  Compulsiveness.


 Dominance.  High energy.
 Enthusiasm.  Intuitiveness.
 Conscientiousness.  Maturity.
 Social boldness.  Team orientation.
 Tough-mindedness.  Empathy.
 Self-assurance.  Charisma.

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THE LEADERS
OF ALL TIMES

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ALEXANDER THE GREAT
Why Alexander should deserve to be called "the Great"?

Leadership
Alexander was surely not the first person in history who got this title.
The Persian King Cyrus the Great and the Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses the
Great went before him. But it is recorded that even in Antiquity the Roman
emperors already knew Alexander as "the Great".

The first clue is Alexander's leadership. Military experts still consider him
one of the most outstanding commanders ever. Arguably, there is no one
else in history who could inspire and motivate his men like Alexander did.
Many explanations have been suggested: he suffered the same wounds as
his soldiers, he payed attention to every single man in the army and he
always led the attack in person. (Actually, he was the last great commander
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in history to take this personal risk.)


ALEXANDER THE GREAT

But apart from all that there must have been a deciding factor that we can
only marvel about: charisma. Alexander was the only individual whose
personal authority could hold his huge empire together. After his death it
almost immediately fell apart into competing kingdoms. In 332 BC, in Egypt,
the famous oracle of Siwa allegedly confirmed that Alexander had divine
origins and that the god Zeus (Ammon) was his true father. We do not
know how Alexander himself thought about his divinity, but it surely helped
him to boost the myth around his person.

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THE MAHATMA
Oct 2, 1869 to Jan 30, 1948
A Brief History of Mohandas K. Gandhi by Richard Attenborough

Mohandas K. Gandhi was born in 1869 to Hindu parents in the state of


Gujarat in Western India. He entered an arranged marriage with Kasturbai
Makanji when both were 13 years old. His family later sent him to London to
study law, and in 1891 he was admitted to the Inner Temple, and called to
the bar. In Southern Africa he worked ceaselessly to improve the rights of
the immigrant Indians. It was there that he developed his creed of passive
resistance against injustice, satyagraha, meaning truth force, and was
frequently jailed as a result of the protests that he led. Before he returned
to India with his wife and children in 1915, he had radically changed the lives
of Indians living in Southern Africa. 91
THE MAHATMA
Back in India, it was not long before he was taking the lead in the long
struggle for independence from Britain. He never wavered in his unshakable
belief in nonviolent protest and religious tolerance. When Muslim and Hindu
compatriots committed acts of violence, whether against the British who
ruled India, or against each other, he fasted until the fighting ceased.
Independence, when it came in 1947, was not a military victory, but a triumph
of human will. To Gandhi's despair, however, the country was partitioned into
Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan. The last two months of his life were spent
trying to end the appalling violence which ensued, leading him to fast to the
brink of death, an act which finally quelled the riots. In January 1948, at the
age of 79, he was killed by an assassin as he walked through a crowed garden
in New Delhi to take evening prayers. end of Attenborough's summary

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Communication

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Communication

Communication is defined as “the process of


passing information and understanding from one
person to another. It is essentially a bridge of
meaning between the people. By using the bridge a
person can safely cross the river of
misunderstanding.

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Objectives of Communication

Information
• External
• Internal
Advice (flows horizontally)
Suggestion (flows upwardly)
Order
• Written orders
• Oral orders
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Objectives of Communication

 Motivation

Persuasion

Warning

Negotiations (win-win approach)

Education

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Communication Process

Sender Receiver

Receive
Encode Message Channel Decode
Meaning

Decode as Encode as
Channel Message
Receiver sender

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Importance of Communication
 Efficient working of the business
 Communication failures are costly
 Basis of managerial functions
 Building human relations
 Total Quality management
 Zero-defect marketing and quality services
 Job satisfaction and enrichment
 Maintaining relations with external parties
 Strategic management
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Forms of Communication

(1) One way communication and two way communication

(2) Verbal communication and Non-verbal communication

(3) Formal communication (Downward/upward/lateral) and


Informal communication

(4) Inter personal communication and Intra personal


communication

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Barriers of Communication

Physical Barriers Noise, improper time, Distance inadequate or


overloaded information.

Organizational Barriers Organizational rules regulations, Hierarchical


Relationship, Non conducting of staff meeting,
wrong choice of channel.

Psychological Barriers Selective perceptions, premature evaluation,


Different comprehension of reality, Attitude of
superiors, Attitude of sub-ordinates, poor
listening, egotism, emotions.

Semantic Barriers Different languages, Different context for words


and symbols, poor vocabulary. 100
Utility of Communication

Oral communication Written communication

Interviews Formal Reports


Meetings Technical proposals
Seminars
Business correspondence
Conferences
Notices, Agenda & Minutes
Group Discussions
Hand books and manuals
Audio-Visual Aids
Research papers and articles
Public speaking
Advertising and job description

Graphic aids
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Controlling

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Controlling

“Compelling Events to Conform to Plans”

Control Process

 Establish Performance Standards Planning


 Measure Actual Performance
 Compare Performance with Standards Measurement
of Variance Feedback and Analysis
 Corrective Action
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Control Process - Closed Loop vs. Open Loop

 Closed Loop
 Automatic or cybernetic
 Monitors or manages process by internal, self-
regulating system
 Essential feature is strong feedback system
 Example: Home thermostat system

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Control Process - Closed Loop vs. Open Loop

 Open Loop
 Requires external monitoring or agent to activate
control
 Example: Cruise control on an automobile

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Timing of Control

 Feedback Control (Output)


 Measures system output and variance with predetermined
standard
 Adjusts system to maintain variance within a specified
range
 Screening Control (Concurrent)
 Control applied concurrently with effort being controlled

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Timing of Control
 Feed Forward Control (Steering or Preliminary)
 Attempts to predict the impact of current
actions/events
 Current decisions are refined to facilitate goal
attainment

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Characteristics of Effective Control Systems

 Effective
 Efficient
 Timely
 Flexible
 Understandable
 Tailored
 Highlight deviations
 Lead to corrective actions
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Three Types of Control

 Financial

 Human Resource

 Social

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Financial Control - Three Major Statements

 Income Statement
 Shows financial performance of a firm over a
period of time
 Cash Flow
 Shows where cash comes from and what it is used
for
 Balance Sheet
 Shows the firm’s financial position at a particular
instant in time
 Assets and liabilities
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Ratio Analysis
 Ratios of two financial numbers taken from financial
statements and compared to industry averages
 Four Types
 Liquidity: Measures ability to meet short term
obligations
 Leverage: Measures the level of debt in a firm’s
financial structure
 Activity: Measures how effectively a firm uses its
resources
 Profitability: Measures profit producing
performance of firm

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Budgets

 Financial Budgets: Identify sources of cash and


intended uses
 Cash Budgets
 Capital Expenditure Budgets
 Balance Sheet Budget

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Responsibility Centers

 Cost Centers
 Manager’s primary concern is control of costs
 Revenue Center
 Manager’s primary concern is attaining revenue
target
 Profit Center
 Manager has more freedom to manipulate costs to
increase profit

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Budget Preparation

 Top Management
 Estimates of future sales and production
 Priorities used to meet new objectives
 Middle Management
 Prepares proposed revenue and expense budgets
designed to attain estimated sales/production
levels

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Audits of Financial Data

 Verify accuracy of firm’s financial data


 May be internal or external
 Internal audits also evaluate organizational efficiency

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Non-financial Controls

 Management Audits
 Evaluate efficiency
 Human Resources Accounting
 Quantifies the value of human resources
investment
 Costs of recruiting
 Costs of training
 Costs of process improvement
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Non-financial Controls

 Social Controls
 Standards

 Comparison with outcomes


 Corrective action

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Non-financial Controls

 Effectiveness of research activities

 Systems for release of drawing release

 Inventory control

 Quality control

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Summary

 Planning, organizing and staffing activities is converted

into reality through directing and leading

 Leadership and Motivation is important for success of any

organization

 Communication is the life blood of any organization

 Controlling optimizes on utilization of resources and

general discipline of the organizations


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Gantt chart

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PERT Diagram

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 MS Project can work out the critical path for you!
 The length of the critical path is the sum of the lengths of
all critical tasks (the red tasks 1,2,3,4,5,7) which is
2+3+1+1.5+2+1 = 10.5 days.
 In other words, the minimum amount of time required to
get all tasks completed is 10.5 days
 The other tasks (6,8) can each run over-time before
affecting the end date of the project
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