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Features of a Volcano

Prepared by: Jerome S. Manalo, LPT


Objectives
At the end of the day, the student should be
able to:
1. Determine the features of a volcano.
2. Illustrate a volcano together with its part
and the importance of each.
3. Appreciate the existence of volcano in
our country.
The PARICUTIN volcano
 It was the first volcano to study from its
birth to the development of a new volcano.
 It is located near the town of San Juan,
Mexico.
 It started from a small crack in a crust from
then it steam fizzed with volcanic sulfur odor
followed by a brief series of explosions.
The PARICUTIN volcano
 Paricutin was declared an active
volcano that releases pyroclastic debris.
 From then, it continues to grew up to
336 m (1,100 ft.) and continued to add
size.
 After several years, it was declared
DORMANT due to its inactivity.
Features of a volcano
CONES
 The overall shape of a
volcano. It is composed
of mixtures of lava and
pyroclastic.
 It varies it shapes
depending on the type
of magma that is
ejected.
CONES
 For instance, viscous
and slow-moving
granitic magma forms
high-sided steep cones.
 While, fast-moving
basaltic magma
creates low to almost
flat cones.
VENT
The opening through
which an eruption takes
place.
 It supplies the magma
from the underlying
source to the top of the
volcano.
 It can be straight or
convoluted.
MAGMA CHAMBER

The large
underground
pool of liquid
rock found
beneath the
Earth’s crust.
 It also supplies
a shallower
chamber near
the summit.
CRATER
 A basin-like
depression
over a vent
at the
summit of
the cone.
CALDERA
A volcanic depression
much larger than the
original crater.
 It can be created
when:
1. Volcano’s summit is
blown off by
exploding gas.
2. Volcano collapses.
LAVA
 The rock or
magma expelled
from a volcano
during eruption.
 It flows until it
cools and
hardens.
DIKES
 The barrier or
obstacles in a
volcano.
 It was found in
igneous forms that
under great pressure,
cut fractures or fissures
across previously
formed metamorphic,
sedimentary, or
igneous rocks.
SILLS
 It is also known as
“intrusive sheets”.
 A solidified lava
flows originally
forced their way
between and
parallel to older
layers of rocks.
CONDUIT
A channel or
pipe conveying
liquid materials
such as
magma.
FLANK
 The side of a
volcano.
It is used to
describe the
side of the
mountain
SUMMIT
 The highest
point or apex
of a volcano.
THROAT
 The entrance
of a volcano.
ASH CLOUD
It was expelled in
the atmosphere;
also known as the
“volcanic ash”.
 It is composed of
pulverized rock
and glass created
during eruption.
VOLCANIC BOMBS
 The chunks of lava
blasted into the air which
solidify before reaching
the ground.
 Its sizes may vary that it
can measure up to 64
mm in diameter.
PYROCLASTIC FLOW
 A fast – moving currents
of hot gases and rock
travelling downhill from a
volcano.
 It includes pumice flow,
ash flow, block and ash
flow, glowing erupting
cloud called nuee ardent.
PYROCLASTIC FLOW
 It varies in terms of its
size:
a. ASH – less than 2
mm.
b. LAPILLI – 2 – 64 mm
c. BLOCKS or BOMBS –
bigger than 64 mm in
diameter.
TEPHRA FLOW
 It refers to fragmented
material that consists of
pumice, scoria, lithic
materials or crystals or the
combination of the four
materials.
LAHAR
 Also called as mudflow.
 It is a flowing mixture of
volcanic debris and water.
 They are classified into:
1. HOT – directly associated
with volcanic eruption.
2. COLD – when they are
caused by heavy rainfall.
WORK IT OUT!
Using the diagrams and illustrations compare
and contrast the following:
a. Crater and Caldera
b. Vent and Magma Chamber
c. Pyroclastic Flow and Tephra Flow
d. Summit and Throat