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TEXT BOOK AND DOCUMENTATION

ANEP 24
GUIDELINES FOR
SHIPBOARD HABILITY
REQUIREMENTS FOR
COMBATANT SURFACE
SHIPS

• Ship Knowledge A Modern Encyclopedia


• ANEP 24 : GUIDELINES FOR SHIPBOARD
HABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR COMBATANT
SURFACE SHIPS
GUIDELINES FOR SHIPBOARD
HABILITY REQUIREMENTS

Base on
ANEP 24 : GUIDELINES FOR SHIPBOARD HABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR
COMBATANT SURFACE SHIPS
NATO UNCLASSIFIED
SEPTEMBER 1987
GUIDELINES FOR SHIPBOARD
HABILITY REQUIREMENTS
Purpose
• To enunciate the policy of participating
nations in regards to requirements for
shipboard habitability.
• To provide personnel facilities which
best support total ship effectiveness;
having regard to space and cost
limitations, also to establish a scale of
needs.
• To provide an environment which allows
FACTORS
MUST BE ADDRESSED IN THE DESIGN OF
SHIPBOARD HABILITY FACILITIES
• REQUIREMENT
• ACCOMMODATIONS STANDARD
• HABITABILITY STANDARDS
• ENDURANCE
• OTHER OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
FACTORS
MUST BE ADDRESSED IN THE DESIGN OF
SHIPBOARD HABILITY FACILITIES
• CONSTRAINT
– AREA
– DECK HEIGHT
– WEIGHT
– POWER
– FINANCE
– MANNING (AUTOMATION AND
MAINTENANCE POLICIES)
– FRESH WATER
DISTILLING/STOWAGE
– INTERNATIONAL
REGULATIONS
– CULTURAL CONSIDERATION
FACTORS
MUST BE ADDRESSED IN THE DESIGN OF
SHIPBOARD HABILITY FACILITIES
• ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL
– LIGHTING / COLOR
– CLIMATIC ENVIRONMENT
– FIRE SAFETY
– OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
– ACOUSTICAL (NOISE)
– SEWAGE & WASTE TREATMENT &
STOWAGE
– ACCESS / EMERGENCY ESCAPE
– DAMAGE CONTROL
– SHOCK
FACTORS
MUST BE ADDRESSED IN THE DESIGN OF
SHIPBOARD HABILITY FACILITIES
• OUTFIT AND
FURNISHING
– FURNITURE
– EQUIPMENT
– MATERIALS
– ARRANGEMENTS
– DÉCOR
– FOOD SERVICE
FACTORS
MUST BE ADDRESSED IN THE DESIGN OF
SHIPBOARD HABILITY FACILITIES
• FACILITIES
MAINTENANCE
– WORK SPACE / OFFICES
– BERTHING
– SANITARY
– FOODSERVICE
– LAUNDRY
– LEISURE FACILITIES
– CANTEEN
– BARBER SHOP
– BRIG (JAIL)
– RELIGIOUS FACILITIES
– PROVISION STOWAGE
– MEDICAL / DENTAL
CONCEPT OF HABILITY

• BIOLOGICAL CONSIDERATION
– A minimum standard of comfort corresponding
to the degree of fatigue that can be
withstand by mankind for an indefinite
length of time without loss of effectiveness
• SOCIOLOGICAL CONSIDERATION
CONCEPT OF HABILITY

• EACH SHIP TYPE HAS SPECIFIC MISSION


REQUIREMENTS, TECHNICAL MEANS, AND
PERSONNEL NEEDS. THEREFORE, ITS
TECHNOLOGICAL AND PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
MUST BE UNIQUELY INTEGRATED IN A MANNER
SHIP DESIGN

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Speed
Stability
Crew Maintenan
Member cePoweri
Range ng
Resist
Displaceme ance
nt Cost
Accommoda
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FACTOR IN VOLVED
CONCEPT OF HABILITY

• EXISTING INFORMATION INDICATES THAT AS


THE LENGTH OF TIME SPENT IN A CONFINED
ENVIRONMENT INCREASES, THE FOLLOWING
NEGATIVE EFFECTS ON PERSONNEL
PERFORMANCE RESULT :
– PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICALSTRESS
INCREASES, WHILE MOTIVATION, MORALE, AND
SHIP LAYOUT
SHIP LAYOUT
HABILITY FUNCTIONS
• REST AND SLEEP
• FOOD SERVICE
• HYGIENE AND SANITATION
• RELAXATION, RELIGIOUS ACTIVITY AND
PERSONAL STUDY
• RECREATION
• OFFICES AND WORK SPACES
• COMMUNAL SERVICES
DISTRIBUTION AND LOCATION OF
HABILITY SPACES
• PERSONNEL SHOULD FEEL “AT HOME” ON BOARD,
AND THE FACILITIES FOR EACH CATEGORY OF
PERSONNEL MUST BE PROPERY GROUPED
• IT IS DESIRABLE, ESPECIALLY ABOARD LARGE
SHIPS, FOR PERSONNEL TO BE ACCOMMODATED
CLOSE TO THE EQUIPMENT THAT THEY OPERATE
• COMMISARY FACILITIES SHALL BE GROUPED SO
AS TO FACILITATE THE HANDLING OF FOOD
STORES DURING LOADING IN PORT OR
REPLENISHMENT AT SEA AND DURING USE
RULES and REGULATIONS
• IMO
• CERTIFICATES
• CLASSIFICATION
• ISM
• ISO
• MARPOL
RULES and REGULATIONS
IMO
• Within the United Nations, maritime
affairs are taken care of by the
International Maritime Organization, in
abbreviation, IMO. The main objective,
from the first conference in 1948 up to
its entry into force in 1958, is
improvement of safety at sea.
• Safety of ships and navigation was the
first issue, but also from the beginning
Marine Pollution, particularly from oil
carried in tankers, was of great
RULES and REGULATIONS
• The above has resulted in two major
issues: SOLAS and MARPOL.
– Safety of Life at Sea, SOLAS
– Marine Pollution, MARPOL
• Through the years many protocols and
conventions have been adopted.
SOLAS : Safety of Life at Sea
and
MARPOL : Marine Pollution

• SOLAS goes back as far as 1914, but due


to World War I never came into force. A
number of safety conventions have been
implemented since; the last one SOLAS
1974, with amendments, is now valid.
RULES and REGULATIONS
CERTIFICATES
• The following certificates are in use:
• For SOLAS:
– Cargo ship Safety Construction Certificate
– Cargo ship Safety Equipment Certificate
– Cargo ship Safety Radio Certificate
– Cargo ship Safety Certificate, combining 1, 2 and
3.
• In SOLAS the ship's construction is also
regulated, with regards to strength, maximum
size of floodable compartments, intact and
damage stability.
• Rules and regulations and certificates are
more stringent for passenger ships than for
cargo ships.
• The Loadline Certificate, evidence of meeting
RULES and REGULATIONS
CERTIFICATES
• For MARPOL:
• The International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate
(IOPP), for oil tankers of 400 GT and above and for
other cargo ships above 400 GT. commonly called Annex
I.
• Tankers originally simply pumped their tank washings
overboard, causing enormous pollution in the sea and
on the beaches. Now this outflow is restricted to max
30 litres per nautical mile, and only when they are
not in restricted waters.
• It started with oil pollution and then pollutants were
also taken into consideration.
• Annex II deals with Noxious Liquids and Chemicals. The
relevant regulations are found in the BCH Code, Code
for the construction and equipment of ships carrying
dangerous chemicals in bulk.
RULES and REGULATIONS
CLASSIFICATION
• Classification is controlling strength
and quality of materials and workmanship
in connection with the ship, when built
"under Class".
• At the same time a trading certificate
is issued with a validity of 5 years
which has to be endorsed every year, on
completion of the Annual Survey.
• To carry out the different surveys, the
Class Societies each maintain a
worldwide network of surveyors,
RULES and REGULATIONS
CLASSIFICATION
• The main Societies are grouped under
IACS, the International Association Of
Classification Societies.
• The main members are:
– American Bureau of Shipping (ABS)
– Bureau Veritas (BV)
– Det Norske Veritas (DNV)
– Germanischer Lloyd (GL).
– Lloyd's Register (LR)
– Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (NKK)
• The Certificate of Class is the basis
RULES and REGULATIONS
CLASSIFICATION
• the Classification Society looks after
the technical condition of the ship
• the Flagstate look after the people on
board, and their behaviour in connection
with safety. Environment and
communication.
• Many flagstates delegate their tasks to
the Classification Society. Therefore,
on many ships, apart from the class
certificate, the statutory certificates
are issued by the Classification
RULES and REGULATIONS
CLASSIFICATION
• The town where the
ship has been
registered has to be
marked on the stern.
As proof of the
registration the
Flagstate issues the
International Tonnage
Certificate, or the
Classification
Society issues this
certificate on their
behalf.
• This certificate is
worldwide accepted as
giving the official
RULES and REGULATIONS
CLASSIFICATION
• The Flagstate is also responsible for
the Minimum Safe Manning Certificate,
stating the minimum number of crew, and
the required training for them, who have
to be on board when the ship is
underway.
• A relatively new issue of IMO is the
International Safety Management (ISM).
Since July 2002 all ships must have an
ISM certificate. In July 2000, passenger
ships, tankers and bulk carriers already
RULES and REGULATIONS
ISM
• The ISM-code is a list of regulations
for the organisation of the ship. So
basically it concerns the management
system. The management-system comprises
of:
– the organisation on board the ship
– the organisation on shore; the organisation
of the shipping company
– the communication between shore and ship
• The importance of good management for
safety in general is illustrated by the
RULES and REGULATIONS
ISM
• The objectives of the ISM-code are:
– to satisfy all relevant national and intertiotional
laws like SOLAS,MARPOL, ISM, Class and Labour laws
– creating a permanent awareness of safe behavior by
the personnel on board and ashore
– ensuring a readiness to act effectively in
emergencies
– guaranteeing safety at sea
– preventing accidents and damage to environment
• The ISM-code is a standard safety of
consisting of 13 elements, each describing a
business operation that is relevant to safety
and environment.
• The elements can be considered as paragraphs
of the ISM-code.
• They can deal with:
RULES and REGULATIONS
How ISM works
• The shipping companies
• Every shipping company must possess a
"Document of Compliance“ or "DOC". This
document states that the shipping
company is seen fit to exploit the ship
in accordance with the demands of the
ISM-code. One of the demands is that the
shipping companies must develop, execute
and maintain a safety management system
(SMS).
• The Flagstate issue the DOC, but only
RULES and REGULATIONS
How ISM works
• The ships
• The ships can get a safety management
certificate (SMC) if the DOC has been
issued to the shipping company. The SMC
also remains valid for a five year
period. During this period there should
be an inspection somewhere between the
second and third years.
• The audit
• The SMS is inspected by means of an
RULES and REGULATIONS
• ISO: International organisation for
standardisation (ISO), Quality
management system
• IS0 has drawn up the IS0 9000 standard.
This standard sets demands for matters
that an organisation should have or do
in such a way that the customer can be
confident that the product meets the
standards of good quality.
• A company will voluntarily use the ISO-
standards, possibly under pressure of
the free market. The company will draw
up a quality management system (QMS)
RULES and REGULATIONS
MARPOL
• The actual regulations to prevent
pollution by environment unfriendly
substances are given in "Annexes". All
the regulation are guided by the size of
the ship.
MARPOL MARPOL BiggerMARPOL
MARPOL shipsMARPOL
must MARPOL
meet MARPOL
more
and more stringent requirements.
ANNEX I ANNEX ANNEX ANNEX ANNEX V ANNEX ANNEX V
II III IV VI II
RULES and REGULATIONS
MARPOL
• Annex I The International Oil Pollution
Prevention Certificate (IOPP), for oil
tankers of 400 GT and above and for
other cargo ships above 400 GT.
• Annex II deals with Noxious Liquids and
Chemicals.
• Annex III deals with harmful substances
in packed form
• Annex IV sewage
• Annex V garbage
RULES and REGULATIONS
MARPOL
• Annex I : This regulation is against
pollution by oil.
• When the ship is underway at sea, at
least 50 miles from the nearest land,
and not in a restricted area, oily
mixtures with an oil content of max 15
ppm are allowed to be pumped overboard.
To fulfil this requirement, ships have
to be provided with a bilge-water
separator, combined with an oil content
meter with a 15 ppm alarm. When the oil
RULES and REGULATIONS
MARPOL
• Crude tankers during discharge wash
their tanks with cargo, to prevent the
accumulation of sediment. The cargo oil
is pumped through the rotating jets with
high pressure, and the sediments are
kept mixed with the cargo and pumped
ashore with the cargo. This is called
Crude Oil washing (COW). A problem
connected with high pressure washing and
COW is that static electricity is
generated. Crude Oil Washing is
RULES and REGULATIONS
MARPOL
• For oil tanker, Washing is
done with rotating water jets
in the tanks, generating an
oily water mixture which is
pumped to the so-called slop
tank. There it settles into
oil and water. The water can
be pumped out, under control
of the Oil Discharge Monitor
which measures the oil
content. Again max 15 ppm,
underway, 50 miles from
shore, not in restricted
areas and not more than 30
RULES and REGULATIONS
MARPOL
• Annex II : the prevention of pollution by
Noxious Liquid Substances, in general called
'Chemical‘.
• The cargoes are categorized as A, B, C and D
cargoes. Category A is the most toxic one, and
D practically non-toxic to aquatic life.
• The ships are divided into Types I, II and
III.
• A special booklet, issued by IMO, the code for
the construction and equipment of ships
carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk, the so-
called BCH Code, for ships built before 1986,
RULES and REGULATIONS
MARPOL
• Annex III : This Annex regulates the carriage
of Packed Harmful substances.
• The carriage of harmful substances is
prohibited, except when in accordance with the
provisions in this Annex.
• Packages have to be labelled with the correct
name and durable mark or labelled as a marine
pollutant.
• The packing must be adequate. There are
stowage requirements and quantity limitations.
Throwing overboard is only allowed in case the
safety of the ship is at risk or in case of
saving life at sea. This type of cargo is to
be reported (type, quantity, location) to
RULES and REGULATIONS
MARPOL
• Annex IV : sewage
• This Annex regulates the Prevention of
Pollution by Sewage, applicable to ships
of over 200 GT.
• Discharge of sewage is prohibited, except
when the ship has an approved treatment
plant and navigates more than 4 miles
from the nearest land, or, for untreated
sewage, at a minimum of 12 miles from
land.
• Ships navigating in special areas where
the discharge of sewage is not allowed,
are to be fitted with holding tanks for
the retention of all sewage, its size
depending on the ship's normal operating
scheme, and there must be adequate
RULES and REGULATIONS
MARPOL
• Annex V : garbage
• Garbage means all kinds of victuals, domestic and
operational waste, including fresh fish, liable to be
disposed of continuously or periodically, except
substances defined under other Annexes. Disposal into
the sea of plastics is always prohibited. This
includes ropes, fishing nets, and plastic bags.
• Floating waste like dunnage, lining and packing
material is allowed to be disposed of at least 25
miles from the nearest land. Food waste, paper, rags
etc. at least 12 miles from shore. When the last is
ground into small particles, max. 25 mm, 3 miles is
sufficient.
• Of garbage a record must be kept, similarly to
substances described under other Annexes. Garbage like
carton, plastics, etc. can also be disposed of by
RULES and REGULATIONS
MARPOL
• Annex VI air pollution
• This Annex regulates the air pollution
caused by Nitrogen oxides and Sulphur
oxides, caused by the combustion of
(heavy) fuels, the socalled Noxes and
Soxes. These products release with the
exhaust gases in the atmosphere, and
will eventually come down as aciduous
rain. Reducing this pollution can be
done by using low-sulphur fuels or de-
sulphurizing the fuel.
RULES and REGULATIONS
MARPOL
• Annex VII : Ballast water
• This Annex will deal with ballast water.
When a ship sails from one sea area to
another in ballast, it takes organisms
of the eco-system of the departure or
discharge area to the loading area.
There are various ideas about how to
prevent this type of ecopollution:
emptying and refilling ballast tanks
during the voyage or filtering or
changing the water by continuous pumping
over the top. Directives will come in
RULES and REGULATIONS

Documents
• On the following pages some compulsory
documents are shown, without which
leaving a port is not allowed.