Sie sind auf Seite 1von 41

Power System Simulator

for Engineers
Prof. Ismael Albino Padilla
Marilyn Barragán Castañeda
Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla

• PSS®E is an integrated set of computer programs that handles the

following power system analysis calculations UP TO 150 000 buses:

• Power flow and related network analysis functions.

• Balanced and unbalanced fault analysis.
• Network equivalent construction.
• Dynamic simulation.

• The working case and/or one or more of the temporary files are
operated upon by a set of functional program
modules called activities.
• Each activity performs a distinct computational, input, output, or data
manipulation function needed in the course of power flow, short
circuit, equivalent, or dynamic simulation work.

*the temporary files are volatile (i.e., they are automatically deleted
when PSS®E is terminated); and the user has no control over the
temporary files.
Input Data Files
Creating Input Files

• Via a Text Editor

• Via Format Conversion Programs
• Via PSS®E
Input Data files
Steady State Simulation

• Power Flow
• A power flow study (also known as load-flow study) is an
important tool involving numerical analysis applied to a power
system. Unlike traditional circuit analysis, a power flow study
usually uses simplified notation such as a one-line diagram and
per-unit system.
• Power flow studies are important because they allow for planning
and future expansion of existing as well as non-existing power
Data files used in steady state simulation
*.sav Saved case file is a binary image of the load flow working case. To conserve
disk space and minimize the time required for storage and retrieval.

*.raw Power flow raw data file is a collection of unprocessed data. This means the file
has not been altered, compressed, or manipulated in any way by the computer.
Raw files are often used as data files by software programs that load and process
the data.

*.sld Slider file (Single Line Diagram) This file allows for performing network analysis
studies on the grid. Sliders are visual displays of the grid.
Input Data file *.raw structure

Case Identification Data Two-Terminal DC Transmission Line

Bus Data FACTS Device Data
Voltage Source Converter (VSC) DC
Transmission Line Data
Load Data
Transformer Impedance Correction
Fixed Bus Shunt Data Tables Switched Shunt Data
Generator Data Multi-Terminal DC Transmission Line
Non-Transformer Branch
Multi-Section Line Grouping Data Q Record
Zone Data
Transformer Data
Interarea Transfer Data
Area Interchange Data Owner Data
Case Identification Data
Case identification data consists of three data records. The first record contains six items of data as

Name Description
IC 0 by default
SBASE System MVA base. SBASE = 100.0 by default.
REV PSS®E revision number. REV = current revision (32) by
XFRRAT Units of transformer ratings
XFRRAT < 0 for MVA
XFRRAT > 0 for current expressed as MVA
NXFRAT Units of ratings of non-transformer branches
NXFRAT < 0 for MVA
NXFRAT > 0 for current expressed as MVA
BASFRQ System base frequency in Hertz.
Calculating MVA ratings

• When current ratings are being specified, ratings are entered as:
MVArated = sqrt( 3) x Ebase x Irated x 10-6

• Where
• Ebase Is the branch or transformer winding voltage base in volts.
Irated Is the rated phase current in amps
Bus Data

Each network bus to be represented in PSS®E is introduced by reading a

bus data record. Each
bus data record has the following format


Name Description
I Bus number
NAME Alphanumeric identifier assigned to bus I. NAME may be up to twelve characters and
may contain any combination of blanks, uppercase letters, numbers and special
characters, but the first character must not be a minus sign. NAME must be enclosed
in single or double quotes if it contains any blanks or special characters. NAME is
twelve blanks by default.
BASKV Bus base voltage; entered in kV. BASKV = 0.0 by default.
IDE Bus type code: IDE = 1 by default
1. 1 for a load bus or passive node (no generator boundary condition)
2. 2 for a generator or plant bus (either voltage regulating or fixed Mvar)
3. 3 for a swing bus
4. 4 for a disconnected (isolated) bus

AREA Area number (1 through 9999). AREA = 1 by default

ZONE Zone number (1 through 9999). ZONE = 1 by default.
OWNER Owner number (1 through 9999). OWNER = 1 by default.
VM Bus voltage magnitude; entered in pu. VM = 1.0 by default.
VA Bus voltage phase angle; entered in degrees. VA = 0.0 by default
Load Data

• Multiple loads may be represented at a bus by specifying more than one load
data record for the bus, each with a different load identifier
• Each load at a bus can be a mixture of loads with three different
1. the Constant PowerLoad Characteristic
2. the Constant Current Load Characteristic
3. and the constant admittance load characteristic

• Each load data record has the following format:

Name Description
I Bus number, or extended bus name enclosed in single quotes

ID Load identifier used to distinguish among multiple loads at bus I.

STATUS Load status of one for in-service and zero for out-of-service. STATUS = 1 by
AREA Area to which the load is assigned (1 through 9999).
ZONE Zone to which the load is assigned
PL Active power component of constant MVA load.
QL Reactive power component of constant MVA load.
IP Active power component of constant current load
IQ Reactive power component of constant current load.
YP Active power component of constant admittance load.
YQ Reactive power component of constant admittance load; entered in MVARS at one
pu voltage. negative quantity for an inductive load and positive for a capacitive
OWNER Owner to which the load is assigned
SCALE Load scaling flag of one for a scalable load and zero for a fixed load
Fixed Shunt Data

• Each fixed bus shunt data record has the following format:
Name Description
I Bus number, or extended bus name enclosed in single quotes
ID One- or two-character uppercase non-blank alphanumeric shunt
identifier used to distinguish among multiple shunts at bus I.
STATUS Shunt status of one for in-service and zero for out-of-service.
GL Active component of shunt admittance to ground; entered in MW
at one per unit voltage
BL Reactive component of shunt admittance to ground; entered in
Mvar at one per unit voltage.
Generator Data

• Each bus specified in the bus data input with a Type code of 2 or 3
must have a generator data record entered for it.

• Each generator has a single line data record with the following
Name Description
PG Generator active power output; entered in MW.
QG Generator reactive power output; entered in Mvar. QG needs to be entered only if the case, as read
in, is to be treated as a solved case.
QT Maximum generator reactive power output; entered in Mvar
QB Minimum generator reactive power output; entered in Mvar
VS Regulated voltage setpoint; entered in pu.
IREG Bus number for which voltage is to be regulated by this plant to the value specified by VS.
MBASE Total MVA base of the units represented by this machine; entered in MVA
ZR,ZX Complex machine impedance, ZSORCE; entered in pu on MBASE base
RT,XT Step-up transformer impedance, XTRAN; entered in pu on MBASE base. zero if the step-up
transformer is explicitly modeled as a network branch
GTAP Step-up transformer off-nominal turns ratio; entered in pu on a system base.
STAT Machine status of one for in-service and zero for out-of-service
PT Maximum generator active power output; entered in MW
PB Minimum generator active power output
WMOD Wind machine control mode; WMOD
Non Transformer Branch Data

• In PSS®E, the basic transmission

line model is an Equivalent Pi
connected between network

• Each non-transformer branch data

record has the following format:
Name Description
I Branch from bus number
J Branch to bus number
CKT branch circuit identifier
R Branch resistance; entered in pu.
X Branch reactance; entered in pu.
B Total branch charging susceptance; entered in pu
RATEA,RATEB First,secon,third rating; entered in either MVA or current expressed as MVA,
,RATEC according to the value specified for NXFRAT
GI,BI Complex admittance of the line shunt at the bus I end of the branch
GJ,BJ Complex admittance of the line shunt at the bus J end of the branch;
entered in pu.
LEN Line length
Zero impedance lines

• PSS®E provides for the treatment of bus ties, jumpers, breakers,

switches, and other low impedance branches as zero impedance
Transformer Data

• The four-record transformer data block for two-winding transformers is:

2. R1-2,X1-2,SBASE1-2

• Control parameters for the automatic adjustment of transformers and phase

shifters are specified on the third record of the two-winding transformer data
Name Description
CW The winding data I/O code that defines the units in which the turns ratios
WINDV1, WINDV2 and WINDV3 are specified

CZ The impedance data I/O code that defines the units in which the winding
impedances R1-2, X1-2 are specified:
CM The magnetizing admittance I/O code that defines the units in which MAG1 and
MAG2 are specified:
COD1 The transformer control mode for automatic adjustments of the Winding 1 tap or
phase shift angle during power flow solution
Q record

• Generally, specifying a data record with a Q in column one is used

to indicate that no more data records are to be supplied to
activity READ
Input Data Files
Single Line Diagram
Slider Binary Files *.sld

• A one-line diagram is a simplified graphical representation of a

three phase power system, used extensively in the electrical
utility industry. In power engineering, if we assume that the three
phases of a system are balanced, the 3 phase system can be
represent with a single line (I.E. one line diagram) which
simplifies schematics.

• Per unit voltage used extensively in one-line diagrams to further

simplify the process.
The main components of a one-line (or single line)
diagram are; Buses, Branches, Loads, Machines, 2
Winding Transformers, Switched Shunts, Reactor
and Capacitor Banks.
• All the physical data related to each element shown in the one-
line diagram is linked to the data file (*.SAV)

• One can view the power flow and the operating levels of a branch.
This allows a Power Engineer to quickly see potential trouble spots
in a power system and correct them before problems occur

• go to third toolbar and Click on Auto Draw and go back click on

the blank.

• Auto-Draw appears
Un-Bind Items in single line diagram

• Because of the *.sav and *.sld

are linked together, any deleting
of a bound item from a diagram
removes it from the *.sav data
file and will result in analysis

• This means that if a change is

made to either files the other
will be affected. This can be
done by right click on a bus and
unselect Bind Items or use
The Loading percentages

• Go to third toolbar. Click on Current Loadings icon

• The following will be displayed:

Given the load power consumption at all buses of the
electric power system and the generator power production
at each power plant, what is the power flow in each line
and transformer of the interconnecting network?

Power flow analysis

The quantities to be determined are:

•The magnitude of the voltage at every bus where this is not specified in
the input data.

•The phase of the voltage at every bus, except swing buses.

•The reactive power output of each plant for which it is not specified.

•The real power, reactive power, and current flow in each transmission
line and transformer
Power Flow Solution Methods
Iterative Scheme Activity Name

Modified Gauss-Seidel handles series

Full Newton-Raphson

Decoupled Newton-Raphson
Selection Guide of Power Flow Solution Activities
Solution Options for FNSL

•ACCN - the acceleration factor

•TOLN - the largest mismatch in MW and Mvar

•ITMXN - the maximum number of iterations

•DVLIM - the largest change in bus voltage

•NDVFCT - the non-divergent improvement


•VCTOLQ - the controlled bus Q mismatch

convergence tolerance

•VCTOLV - the controlled bus voltage error

convergence tolerance
Solving a power system

• Solving a system allows PSS/E to make all the necessary

calculations used in a power flow analysis.
• Go to fourth toolbar. Click on solve icon

• The following window will display:

Blown up and convergence status

• At the completion of the first iteration, the largest Dvmag / vmag

change is checked against a blowup tolerance.
• BLOWUP, which has a default value of 5.0 pu;
• On subsequent iterations, the largest phase angle change as well as the
largest voltage magnitude change are checked. The unscaled change
vectors are used in the blowup check; i.e., the blown up condition is

• If the largest change exceeds the blowup tolerance, an appropriate

message is printed and activityFNSL is terminated.

• Program Operation Manual PSS E

• Lab1 Colorado State University