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When to stop worrying and start worrying

about cold weather, about hot weather.

“Is there such a thing as


Good Weather Concreting?”
Minneapolis Cold Dry Las Vegas Hot Dry
Cold Hot
Dry High Dry

Evaporation
Low High

Condensation Concrete Temperature


Seattle Cool Wet
Miami Hot Wet

Hot
Cool Low Wet
Wet
ACI 305 High

Evaporation
ACI 308

ACI 301

Low High
ACI 306 ACI 305
ACI 301 Condensation Concrete Temperature
ACI 301

ACI WET?
Low
ACI 305
Dry-Weather

Evaporation
Concreting
ACI 308

ACI 301

Low High
ACI 306 ACI 305
ACI 301 Condensation Concrete Temperature
ACI 301
ACI 305
Dry-Weather

Evaporation
Concreting
ACI 308

ACI 301

Low High
ACI 306
ACI 301 Condensation
?Concrete Temperature
ACI 305

ACI 301
Job Site / Macro-Climate Interaction

http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=weather+map&view=detail&id=2D16ED85D507D8F1C9DF0063A386924
73FE79938&first=301&FORM=IDFRIR&qpvt=weather+map
Concrete / Micro-Climate Interaction
Micro-Structure / Temp.-
Moisture Interaction
Begin with concrete temperature
Weather and Concrete: Sub-Microscopic Perspective

Rate of Heat- Release


Rate of Hydration

Concrete Temperature

Hydration
Concrete Temperature (C)
-10 0 10 20 30 40
4
Relative Hydration Rate
Compared to Lab Cure

Risk of Freezing
3

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Concrete Temperature (F)


Concrete Temperature (C)
-10 0 10 20 30 40
4
Relative Hydration Rate
Compared to Lab Cure
3
Risk low in-place
strength @ 50F /10C

200 %
2

100 %
1

50 %
52 F 73 F 96 F
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Concrete Temperature (F)


Concrete Temperature (C)
-10 0 10 20 30
2
Relative Hydration Rate
Compared to Lab Cure
1.5

0.5

0
0 20 40 60 80

Concrete Temperature (F)


Weather and Concrete: Sub-Microscopic Perspective

Quality of Hydration
Rate of Hydration

Concrete Temperature

Hydration
Effect of Concrete
Temperature on Strength

Kosmatka: Design & Control


Effect of Low Temperature
on Strength

Kosmatka: Design & Control


Curing Temperature (C)
13 23 32 41 49
6000
40

5000

Compressive Strength (MPa)


Compressive Strength (psi) 28 day strength 30
4000

3000 20

2000 1 day strength


10

1000

0 0
55 73 90 105 120
Curing Temperature ( F)
Weather influences concrete temperature

• Rate of hydration • Rate of strength


• Heat of hydration gain
• Rate of slump • Shrinkage
loss • Cracking
• Water demand • Max strength
• Set time • Freezing
So what do we do about this?

We generate
Rules,
Regulations,
and
Specifications
Low High

F 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

0 10 20 30 40 50
C

Concrete Temperature
Low High

Risk of Freezing

F 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

0 10 20 30 40 50
C

Concrete Temperature
Low Early Strength

28-day Optimum

Std. Lab Cure


Low High

F 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

0 10 20 30 40 50
C
Non-Std. Field Cure
Concrete Temperature
Spec. Min. Spec. Max.
StrengthTesting
Cylinder Testing
ASTM C31-Making Cylinders
10.1.2 Initial Curing— Immediately after
molding and finishing, the specimens shall be
stored for a period up to 48 h in a temperature
range from 60 and 80 °F [16 and 27 °C] and in an
environment preventing moisture loss from the
specimens. For concrete mixtures with a
specified strength of 6000 psi [40 MPa] or
greater, the initial curing temperature shall be
between 68 and 78 °F [20 and 26 °C].
NOT a
Curing Box

Curing Box

38
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Daily high

Average

Daily Low

US
Average
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Daily high
Certifiably Cold

Certifiably Cold
Average
per ACI

per ACI
Daily Low

US
Average
Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Unprotected Cylinders
Too Hot

Daily high

Average

Daily Low

Unprotected Cylinders Unprotected Cylinders


US
Too Cold Too Cold Average
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Daily high

Average

Daily Low

About 2 Weeks of
Acceptable US
Unprotectability / Year Average
Milwaukee

San Diego St. Louis

Phoenix

Honolulu
St. Louis, Missouri

St. Louis: A few


days per year of
Unprotectability
Phoenix, Arizona

Cylinders in Phoenix
Must be Protected All Year
San Diego, California

San Diego: Keep Cylinders warm


7-1/2 months per year
Honolulu, Hawaii

Honolulu: Keep Cylinders cool


Memorial Day to Thanksgiving
Concrete Temperature (C)
Hydration -10 0 10 20 30 40
Rate
Relative Hydration Rate
4

Compared to Lab Cure


3

200 %
2

100 %
1

50 %
52 F 73 F 96 F
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Concrete Temperature (F)


Concrete at Milwaukee Average Daily Temp
Relative to 73◦ Lab Cure
Lab Cylinders
Predict
in-place strength
only in July
Rate of Early-Age Strength Gain Rel. to Lab Cure:
Concrete at Avg. Daily Temperature
in Phoenix, St. Louis, & Milwaukee
Even in Milwaukee…

Concrete can generate its own


Hot Weather
Heat of Hydration
Cement
Manufacture

Energy In Energy Out


Heat of
Hydration

About 390,000 BTU


per
Ton Cement
Slightly Less than 10% of
Heat Energy input at
Cement Plant returned to
Contractor
(at no extra charge)
Heat of
Hydration

About 190 BTU


per
lb Cement
Slightly Less than 10% of
Heat Energy input at
Cement Plant returned to
Contractor
(at no extra charge)
Heat of
Hydration

6 Sack Mix =

564 lb x 190 BTU =

107,000 BTU / CY
How fast is this heat of hydration produced?

Contractor’s Heat Bonus


564 lb Cement / CY
2200 BTU per hour / CY
4 – 150 W lamps

564 lb Cement / CY
640 Watts / CY
Cornell University, June 21, 2004 Kenneth C. Hover, P.E., Ph.D.
85F / 29C

100F / 38C
Cool or Cold Weather

> 18 inches Hot Weather


Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr

> 18 inches Jul-Aug


Focus on Moisture
“Hydration proceeds only in water-filled space.”

Hydration
Cement and water paste
Hydration in water-filled
space
Continued Hydration
Continued Hydration
in water-filled space
Origin of Shrinkage
Initially Saturated
Beginning to Dry
Drying
Drying
Drying
Drying
Drying
Drying
Clay
Concrete
How soon until this concrete starts to dry?
Concrete Slab on Ground in dry air
1.) Bleed water appears on concrete surface
2.) Bleed water evaporates
3.) Drying of concrete surface
Bleed water
visible as a
surface
shininess or
“sheen.”

Note
reflections
on water-
covered
surface.
Some
bleed
water
visible

Surface
drying
will
start
soon!
2.0

Evaporativity

Evaporativity kg/m2/hr
1.5

1.0 PCA/NRMCA/ACI
NYSDOT
0.5 City of Cincinnati
VaDOT
Std. Moist Room

-2.0 Fog/Mist
Precipitation, mm/hr

-4.0

Soaker Hoses/Sprinklers
-6.0

-8.0
Precipitation Flood Slab after Final
-10.0 Setting
Bleed rate of High
Evaporation of bleed water Performance Mixes  0

Evaporation increases when:


Concrete surface warmer than air Max Evaporation in
Humidity of air decreases cold, dry weather
Wind Speed increases

Sun shines on fresh concrete surface Ignored in most


predictions
Plastic Shrinkage Cracking
Can you have
Too Much Water?
Weather changes available moisture

• Reduced degree of • Increased early-age


hydration near shrinkage
surface
• Increased early-age
• Lower strength cracking
• Lower abrasion • Surface crusting
resist
• Increased w/c due
• Higher permeability to rain
& absorption
Putting it All Together…
USDA Plant Hardiness Zones

Avg Annual
Minimum
Temperatures

6a -10 to -5 F
6b -5 to 0 F
7a 0 to 5 F
7b 5 to 10 F
8a 10 to 15 F
8b 15 to 20 F
9a 20 to 25 F
9b 25 to 30 F
7 Distinct Climate Zones within 400 miles of Milwaukee
http://www.city-data.com/city/Milwaukee-
Wisconsin.html
city-data.com
The Upper Midwest
Spring-Fall
Shrinkage Cracking
Convergence
(Milwaukee Data)
Combination of:
LOW Air Temp
Lowest Humidity
Highest Wind Speed
Mid-April
Late Oct. to Mid-Nov.
Recommended Practice
• Plan so as to avoid adverse exposure
• Pre-placement conference
• Modify the Micro-climate
• Monitor on site conditions
– Instrumentation
– Watch the bleed water
– Watch the people
• Be prepared for changes in the weather
Expect the Unexpected.

“Of course, if you are expecting the unexpected...


well, then it really isn't unexpected anymore...
and that leaves you vulnerable to the truly
unexpected... because you're not expecting it.”
A Beautiful Day for Concrete
• Overcast
• No Wind
• High Humidity / Foggy
• Temp 40-60F
• Rain Tomorrow
2.0
Cold Hot

Evaporativity kg/m2/hr
Dry Dry
1.5

1.0

Concrete Temperature 0.5


F 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

0 10 20 30 40 50

Precipitation, mm/hr
C -2.0

-4.0

-6.0

Low -8.0
Cool Hot
Wet -10.0 Wet
Milwaukee Weather Data

http://www.city-data.com/city/Milwaukee-
Wisconsin.html
city-data.com
Thank You!
End