Slide on generation of FM

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Slide on generation of FM

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What is Modulation?

Varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform called carrier signal with modulating

signal which carries some information

What is FM?

Frequency Modulation is the process of varying the frequency of the

carrier signal linearly with the instantaneous amplitude of message

signal.

Message signal, fm Carrier signal, fc Frequency Modulated Signal

The frequency of the modulated wave remains constant as the carrier wave frequency when the

message signal is at zero. The frequency increases when the message signal reaches its maximum

amplitude.(fc+Δf)

Thus, with increase in amplitude of modulating or message signal, the carrier frequency increases.

And with the decrease in the amplitude of the modulating signal, the frequency also decreases. (fc-Δf)

Consider m(t)=Vm cos(2π fm t)

kf is known as frequency sensitivity or frequency deviation constant

where Δf = kf Vm is called as frequency deviation

𝑑Ɵ

θ (t) =2π ʃ fi(t) dt [ω= 𝑑𝑡 ]

Δ𝑓

θ (t) =2π fc t + 𝑓 sin(2π fm t) = 2πfc t + β sin(2π fm t)

𝑚

𝜟𝒇

where β= 𝒇𝒎

is modulation index of the FM wave; vFM = A cos [2πfct + β sin(2πfmt)]

Mathematical Representation of FM

The simplest approach to generating FM signals is to apply the message signal directly to a voltage-controlled oscillator

(VCO).

A voltage message signal, m(t), is applied to the control voltage of the VCO, and the output signal, xFM (t), is a constant

amplitude sinusoidal carrier wave, whose frequency is ideally a linear function of its control voltage.

When there is no message or the message signal is zero, the carrier wave is at its centre frequency(rest frequency), fc.

When a message signal exists, the instantaneous frequency of the output signal varies above and below the centre frequency and

is expressed by:

fi(t)=fc+ kVCO m(t) ;

KVCO is the voltage-to-frequency gain of the VCO in Hz/V,

KVCO*m(t), is the instantaneous frequency deviation.

The instantaneous phase of the output signal is equal to 2π multiplied by the integral of the instantaneous frequency as shown

below

θi(t)=2π fct + 2πkVCO ∫ m(t)dt ,

where initial phase is assumed to be zero for simplicity.

Hence, the FM output signal,xFM(t), is given as:

xFM(t)= Acos [2πfct + 2πkVCO ∫ m(t)dt

The amplitude of an FM signal is constant regardless of the message signal, giving it a constant envelope

property with an output power equal to A2cinto a 1 Ω resistor.

The frequency-modulated output, xFM(t), has a nonlinear dependence to the message signal, m(t), making it

difficult to analyse the properties of an FM signal.

To estimate the bandwidth of an FM signal, a single tone message signal is used as shown below

m(t)=Am cos2π fmt, where Am is amplitude of the message signal and fm is the frequency of the message signal.

xFM(t)=A cos[2πfct+2πkVCO ∫Am cos 2πfmt, dt]

𝑘𝑉𝐶𝑂𝐴𝑚

= A cos[2πfct + sin2π fmt]

𝑓𝑚

Δ𝑓

=A cos[2πfct + 𝑓 sin2π fmt] Δ or δ can be used

𝑚

𝜟𝒇

xFM(t)=Accos[2πfct+𝒇𝒎sin2πfmt]

The quantity ∆f= Am KVCO represents the peak frequency deviation of the FM signal from the center

frequency and is directly proportional to the amplitude of the message signal and the gain of the VCO.

This quantity, ∆f , is called the maximum instantaneous frequency deviation and 2Δf is carrier swing.

∆𝒇

The ratio of the frequency deviation, ∆f , to the message signal frequency, fm, is called the modulation index, β. So : β=𝒇

𝒎

For a single tone message signal, the number of significant sidebands in the output spectrum is a function of the

modulation index. This can be seen by first writing the FM output signal in terms of nth order Bessel functions of the first

kind .

xFM(t)= Ac ∑Jn(β) cos2π((fc+nfm)t)

xFM(t) =A{Jo(mf) cos ωt + J1(mf) [cos (ωc+ ωm)t+ cos (ωc- ωm)t]+J2(mf) [sin (ωc+ 2ωm)t+ sin (ωc-2ωm)t]

+J3(mf)[sin(ωc+ 3ωm)t- sin (ωc- 3ωm)t]+J4(mf) [sin (ωc+ 4ωm)t+ sin (ωc- 4ωm)t]...}

By taking the Fourier transform, we see a discrete FM output spectrum with magnitude coefficients as a function of β as

shown in the equation below.

xFM(t)= Ac ∑Jn(β)[δ(f-fc-nfm)+ δ(f+fc+nfm)]

The number of sidebands of an FM signal and its associated magnitude coefficient can be found with the help of Bessel

function tables.

Importance of modulation index, β or mf, is that it determines the bandwidth of the signal by determining

the number of effective sidebands of an FM signal.

β or mf, is the measure of radian shift of unmodulated FM signal compared to phase of unmodulated

carrier

if β=0.25, only one sideband is needed; while if β=5, eight sidebands are required

When β<<1 radian then it is called as narrowband FM consisting essentially of a carrier, an upper side-

frequency component, and a lower side-frequency component.

When β>>1 radian then it is called as wideband FM which contains a carrier and an infinite number of

side-frequency components located symmetrically around the carrier

A very important aspect of modulation index is it can change a lot even for a fixed frequency deviation

because the message signal frequency(fm) can vary. In general, as the modulation index increases, the

number of sidebands increases and the bandwidth goes up.

However, the increase in modulation index due to decreasing message frequency (β = ∆ f/fm) may not

necessarily increase the FM bandwidth. The bandwidth is equal to the number of discrete spectral tones

multiplied by the frequency spacing set by the message signal frequency fm.

The spectrum consists of a carrier component at fc plus sideband components at fc + nfm (n = 1,2,...

The number of sideband terms depends on the modulation index

The magnitude of the carrier signal decreases rapidly as m increases.

The amplitudes of the spectral lines depend on the value of Jn(m).

The bandwidth of the modulated signal with a sinusoidal modulating signal increases as m increases, and the

bandwidth of the modulated signal is larger than 2Δf

Unlike AM, where there are only three frequencies (the carrier and the first two sidebands), FM has an infinite

number of sidebands, as well as the carrier. They are separated from the carrier by fm, 2fm, 3fm, . . . , and thus

have a recurrence frequency of fm‘

The J coefficients eventually decrease in value as n increases, but not in any simple manner. The value fluctuates

on either side of zero, gradually diminishing. Since each J coefficient represents the amplitude of a particular pair

of sidebands, these also eventually decrease, but only past a certain value of n. The modulation index determines

how many sideband components have significant amplitudes.

The sidebands at equal distances from Ie have equal amplitudes, so that the sideband distribution is symmetrical

about the carrier frequency. The J coefficients occasionally have negative values, signifying a 1800 phase change

for that particular pair of sidebands.

As mf increases, so does the value of a particular J coefficient. Since mf is inversely proportional to the

modulating frequency, the relative amplitude of distant sidebands increases when the modulation frequency

is lowered for a given deviation (i.e., the modulating voltage remains constant)

In AM, with increased ‘m’, the sideband power and thus the total transmitted power increases. In FM, the

total transmitted power always remains constant, but with increased mf, the required bandwidth is increased

as more distant side bands acquire significant amplitudes.

The theoretical bandwidth required in FM is infinite. In practice, the bandwidth used is one that allow for all

significant amplitudes of sideband components. This really means ensuring that, with maximum deviation by

the highest modulating frequency amplitude, no significant sideband components are left

In FM, unlike in AM, the amplitude of the carrier component does not remain constant. Its J coefficient is

Jo, which is a function of mf. This further explains, how the overall amplitude of an FM wave remains constant

despite the increase of sideband amplitudes with increasing mf

The carrier component of the FM wave may disappear completely for certain values of the modulation index,

called eigenvalues. The transmission efficiency is 100% for these values.

In angle modulation, the spectral components of the modulated signal are not related in a simple fashion to

the spectrum of the modulating signal. Superposition does not apply and the bandwidth of the modulated

signal is usually much greater than the modulating signal bandwidth.

So FM is a non-linear modulation.

FM can be divided into Narrowband FM and Wideband FM depending on value of modulation Index

Narrowband FM: (i)This frequency modulation has a small bandwidth.

(ii)The modulation index is small.(< 1 𝑜𝑟 𝜋/2)

(iii)Its spectrum consists of carrier, USB, and LSB.( similar to AM)

This is used in mobile communications such as police wireless, ambulances, taxicabs, etc.

Modulating signal frequency range for NBFM=30Hz to 3 kHz

(ii)The modulation index is large, i.e., higher than 1or π/2

(iii)Its spectrum consists of a carrier and infinite number of sidebands, which are

located around it.

This is used in entertainment broadcasting applications such as FM radio, TV, etcbut occupies 15 times BW

of NBFM.

Bandwidth Requirements for FM

Schwartz developed a graph for determining BW of an FM signal if modulation index was known. It

was proposed that any frequency component with a signal strength (voltage) less than 1% of

unmodulated carrier will not be considered and the bandwidth of an FM signal can be approximated

with Carson’s rule:

BW= 2(Δf+fm) =2(δ+fm)

mf or β=∆𝒇/𝒇𝒎; ∆𝒇=βfm = mffm

BW=2(βfm +fm)

BW =2fm(1+β)= 2fm(1+mf)

For NBFM: mf or β≪1

BW =2fm

For WBFM: mf or β≫ 𝟏

BW =2fmβ= 2fmmf

=2∆𝒇=2δ

The deviation used for FM is different between different applications.

Broadcast stations in the VHF portion of the frequency spectrum between 88.5 and 108 MHz use large values

of deviation, typically ±75 kHz (WBFM) using 200 kHz Bandwidth( Guard band of 25kHz on either side).

Thus, these signals are capable of supporting high quality transmissions, but occupy a large amount of

bandwidth.

For commercial two way radio communications less bandwidth is used (NBFM). It often uses deviation

figures of around ±5 kHz for modulating frequency of 3kHz. As quality is not as important for radio

communications applications, the much narrower bandwidth has advantages in terms of radio spectrum

efficiency.

For sound portion of commercial T.V Broadcast, deviation is ±25 kHz for modulating frequency of 15kHz.

Direct Method

Generation of FM

Indirect Method

Direct Method or Parameter Variation Method: The baseband or modulating signal directly modulates the

carrier, which is generated with the help of oscillator circuit.

𝟏

ωc=

𝑳𝑪

If carrier frequency has to vary in accordance with modulating signal x(t) if ‘L’ or’ C’ is varied in accordance to

x(t).

(i) Thus VCO, Voltage Controlled Oscillator is used, whose frequency is varied according to

modulating signal using a shunt voltage variable capacitor (varactor diode).

Advantages of Direct Method: Simplicity of the modulator circuit and Low cost

Disadvantages :This type of modulator is not stable enough. It is a function of various parameters such as

temperature, device ageing etc. If crystal oscillator used, problem of stability solved but deviation obtained is less.

Varactor Method for FM Generation

Capacitance is varied in the varactor by

varying the reverse bias which controls the

thickness of the depletion region, the change

in capacitance is linear with the change in the

applied voltage.

The voltage across the diode determines the

frequency of the oscillations (rest

frequency). Positive inputs increase the

reverse bias, decrease the diode capacitance

and thus increase the oscillation frequency.

Similarly, negative inputs decrease the

oscillation frequency.

Crystal oscillator means that the output

waveform is very stable, but this is only the

case if the frequency deviations are kept

very small

𝟏

fc = Hz ;fc is centre frequency for oscillator

𝟐𝝅√𝑳𝑪

With a modulating signal applied, the frequency is

𝟏

f= ;f is new frequency of oscillation

𝟐√𝑳(𝑪+∆𝑪)

Δf = fc-f ; Δf is peak frequency deviation

The direct methods cannot be used for the broadcast applications as larger frequency deviations are not

possible with this method.

Used for AFC and remote tuning

In direct method of FM generation:

As the carrier generation is directly affected by the modulating signal, it is not easy to get high order stability in carrier

frequency.

The non linear characteristics of varactor diode produce a distorted FM signal due to harmonics in the modulating signal.

Indirect Method

In this method, a narrowband frequency-modulated signal (NBFM) is first generated using an integrator and a

phase modulator.

A frequency multiplier is then used to increase the peak frequency deviation from Δf to nΔf to obtain WBFM

Use of frequency multiplication normally increases the carrier frequency from fc to nfc

A mixer or double-sideband modulator is required to shift the spectrum down to the desired range for further

frequency multiplication or transmission.

A crystal oscillator can be used hence the frequency stability is very high.

Integrator Y(t) WBFM

X(t) band PM Multiplier

circuit

fc

Crystal

oscillator(fc)

Generation of FM from phase modulator:

The The modulating signal is passed through a low pass RC filter.(Integrator circuit)

filter output is then applied to a phase modulator along with carrier.

Hence, the extra deviation in the carrier fc due to higher modulating frequency, is compensated by reducing

the amplitude of the high frequency modulating signals.

Hence, the frequency deviation at the output of the phase modulator will be effectively proportional only to the

modulating voltage and we obtain an FM wave at the output of phase modulator.

Implementation of phase modulator:

The crystal oscillator produces a stable unmodulated carrier which is applied to the “90° phase

shifter”.

Phase shifted carrier applied to the balanced modulator along with the modulation signal.

O/P of the balanced modulator is DSBSC signal. This signal consists of only two sidebands with their

resultant in phase with the 90° phase shifted carrier.

Armstrong Method

The most convenient operating frequency for the crystal oscillator and phase modulator is in the vicinity

of 1 MHz. Since transmitting frequencies are normally much higher than this, frequency multiplication

must be used, and so multipliers used

The effect of mixing on an PM signal is to change the center frequency only, whereas the effect of

frequency multiplication is to multiply center frequency and deviation equally.

The Armstrong method uses the phase modulation to generate frequency modulation.

The crystal oscillator generates the carrier at low frequency typically at 1MHz. This is applied to the combining

network and a 90° phase shifter.

The modulating signal is passed through an audio equalizer to boost the low modulating frequencies .The

modulating signal is then applied to a balanced modulator.

The balanced modulator produced two side bands such that their resultant is 90° phase shifted with respect to the

unmodulated carrier.

The unmodulated carrier and 90° phase shifted sidebands are added in the combining network.

At the output of the combining network we get NBFM signal with low fc and low value of the modulation index

mf( low deviation) .

The carrier frequency and the modulation index are then raised by passing the FM wave through the first group of

multipliers.

The carrier frequency is then shifted using a mixer and then the fc and mf both are raised to required high values

using the second group of multipliers.

The FM signal with high fc and high mf is then passed through a class C power amplifier to raise the power level of

the FM signal.

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