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ENT245 -

PRODUCT DESIGN
DEVELOPMENT

DR. SHAH FENNER KHAN MOHAMAD KHAN


0135882910
sfkhan@unimap.edu.my
AHMAD SYAYUTHI ABDUL RAHMAN
0194133822
syayuthi@unimap.edu.my
Mechanical design Lab 1.
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LECTURE OUTLINE

Introduction to the design process.


Basic characteristics of product
development process.
Introduction to the design problems.
Product planning.

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Why study the Design Process?

Continuous need for new, cost‐effective, high‐quality products


 More complex products
 Faster to market
 Need for efficiency in the design of new products
 85% of the problems with new products are the result of a
poor design process
 The goal: to learn the tools to develop an efficient design
process

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 Structured methodology
• Makes decision‐making is more explicit
• Provides checklists
• Is readily documented in a structured way

 The tools are the same regardless of the


product.

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WHAT IS DESIGN?

“To fashion after a plan!”


To design is:

To synthesize new or to arrange existing


things in a new way to satisfy a recognized
need of society.

“Design establishes and defines solutions to and pertinent


structures for problems not solved before, or new solutions to
problems which have previously been solved in a different way.”
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WHAT IS DESIGN, REALLY?

Which of the following is design and which is analysis?

A. Given that the customer wishes to fasten together two steel


plates, select appropriate sizes for the bolt, nut and washer.

B. Given the cross-section geometry of a new airplane wing


we determine the lift it produces by conducting wind tunnel
experiments.

Design Analysis

Form is the solution to a design problem.


DESIGN – DEFINITION

Set of decision making processes and activities


to determine the form of an object,
given the customer’s desired function.
ABET/EAC – Engineering design is the process(activity) of devising
a system, component, or process( procedural outcome of design
effort) to meet desired needs. It is a decision making process, in
which the basic sciences and mathematics and engineering sciences
are applied to convert resources optimally to meet a stated
objective. Among the fundamental elements of the design process
are the establishment of objectives and criteria, synthesis, analysis,
construction, testing and evaluation.
HOW ARE FUNCTION AND FORM RELATED
control
hold
What the product move
is expected to do Function
protect
store
Design decision making processes

shape
What the product configuration
look like, what Form
size
material, how it
is made
materials
manufacturing
processes
Form Ever Follows Function
Luis Sullivan
The form of an object usually depends upon the function it will perform.
EXAMPLE

Screwdriver
Its tip has a shape that drives the screw into the hole.
The handle is configured to conform to human hand, permitting
the application of torque and thrust.
The injection moulding process used to make the handle permits
cost effective manufacture.
The steel shank material safely transmits the torque and thrust
from the handle to the tip.
THE FOUR C’S OF DESIGN
Creativity
Requires creation of something that has not existed
before or has not existed in the designer’s mind before.

Complexity
Requires decisions on many variables and parameters.

Choice
Requires making choices between many possible
solutions at all levels, from basic concepts to the smallest
detail of shape.

Compromise
Requires balancing multiple and sometimes conflicting
requirements. 12
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The history of the design process
 One person used to design an entire product
 Mid 20 century:
th

 More complex products and processes different people


responsible
 for marketing, design and manufacturing, and overall
management
 Over‐the‐wall process

 One‐way communication
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 Inefficient, costly, may result in poor‐quality products
The history of the design process
 Late 1970th
‐ Simultaneous Engineering
1980th
‐ Concurrent Engineering
 1990th
‐ Integrated Product and Process Design
• Features of concurrent engineering:
 Simultaneous design and manufacturing
 Use and support of design teams
 Focus on the entire product life
 Processes are as important as products
 Concern for information
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ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS

Engineering design is different from engineering analysis,


however engineering analysis is connected to engineering
design.

Engineering analysis (problem-solving) process have 3 main


stages: formulating, solving, and checking. Predicted behaviour
is the solution to an analysis problem.

Engineering design process may use different decision making


model to describe the engineering design process. Design
problems are ill-structured(defined) as well as open-ended.
EXAMPLE

Engineering analysis
Given the mass m of an object that has an applied force f acting on it,
determine the acceleration a.
Given the cross-section geometry of an aluminum airplane wing, we determine
the lift it produce by conducting wind tunnel experiment.
Given a cast steel engine block drawing, estimate its weight.
The solution is how the object behave (predicted behaviour)

Engineering design problems

Given that the customer desires to store 1500l of petrol, determine suitable a
storage tank. ( what is the shape and material and how its made)
Given that the customer desires to toast slices of bread, develop a product that
will perform this desired function. ( how many slices, how dark, what type of
bread)
The given information relate to the desire function and the solution is to find the
form.
PHASES IN THE LIFE OF A PRODUCT

establish function
Design
determine form

fabricate
Manufacture assemble
distribute
set up
Use operate
maintain
repair
take down
Retire
disassemble
recycle
dispose
To satisfy the consumer…
We must consider all the phases in the life of a product
Sequential vs. concurrent engineering

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Successful new product

Evidence from PDMA’s new benchmark


study, 76% of all new product launches fail
to meet their revenue targets.

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Factors that determine the success or failure
of a product

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Design effectiveness
Product cost High performance along
Product quality these dimensions should
lead to economic
Time to market
success

QUALITY

VALUE

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Design effectiveness - Cost
The cost of design is only a small part of
the manufacturing cost

 The effect of the quality of the design


Design as fraction of manufacturing
on the manufacturing cost is much cost (Ford Motor Company)
greater

 The decisions made during


the design process have a
great effect on the cost of a
product but cost very little

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PRODUCT COST COMMITMENT DURING PHASES OF
THE DESIGN PROCESS

 Product cost is committed early in the design process


and spent late in the process
 75% of the manufacturing cost is committed by the
end of the conceptual phase 24
Design effectiveness ‐ Quality
• Quality cannot be manufactured into a product
unless it is designed into it
• What determines quality?

The group of features and characteristics of a saleable good which


determine its desirability and which can be controlled by
a manufacturer to meet certain basic requirements.
Most businesses that produce goods for sale have a product quality
or assurance department that monitors outgoing products
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for consumer acceptability.
Design effectiveness ‐ Time to market

• Engineering changes during automobile


development
• Changes are required in order to find a good design,
and early changes are easier and less expensive 26
Importance of the Engineering Design
Process
 Decisions made in the design process cost very little in terms
of the overall product cost but have a major effect on the cost
of the product.

 You cannot compensate in manufacturing for defects


introduced in the design phase.

 The design process should be conducted so as to develop


quality, cost-competitive products in the shortest time
possible.

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SIMPLIFIED ITERATION MODEL

Adapted from M. Asimow, Introduction to Design, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1962.

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DESIGN METHOD VERSUS SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Adapted from P. H. Hill, The Science of Engineering Design, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York
1970.

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A PROBLEM-SOLVING METHODOLOGY
 Definition of the problem
 Gathering of information
 Generation of alternative solutions
 Evaluation of alternatives and decision making
 Communication of the results

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HOW THE DESIGN DEPENDS ON HOW THE PROBLEM
IS DEFINED

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HOW THE DESIGN DEPENDS ON HOW THE PROBLEM
IS DEFINED

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DESIGN PARADOX BETWEEN DESIGN KNOWLEDGE
AND DESIGN FREEDOM

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DESIGN PROCESS PHASES

Phase I:
Conceptual Design

Phase II:
Embodiment Design

Phase III:
Detail Design
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PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

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PHASE II. EMBODIMENT DESIGN

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PHASE III. DETAIL DESIGN

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ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS

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TYPES OF DESIGNS
Original Design: Innovative design - new concept, part never
existed before

Adaptive Design - adapting known solution to new task

Redesign: Variant design - modifying the “form” modifying


existing Part/subassembly, but keeping original concept

Selection design - choosing from existing standard


parts/subassemblies.

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Types of design related to phase

Formulation
Original
design Selection
Part design
design Variant
Concept Design
design

Configuration Configuration
Design Design

Parametric Design Parametric Design Parametric Design

Detail Design Detail Design Detail Design Detail Design

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CONSIDERATIONS OF GOOD DESIGN

1) Achievement of Performance Requirements

2) Life-Cycle Issues

3) Social and Regulatory Issues

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ACHIEVEMENT OF PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

A major characteristic of a design is its function.


Performance Requirements:
Primary Performance Requirements
Complementary Performance Requirements

 Part (Component): A single piece requiring no


assembly
 Assembly: When two or more parts are joined.
 Subassemblies: Smaller assemblies which
compose larger assemblies.
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TOTAL MATERIALS LIFE CYCLE

Reproduced from “Materials and Man’s Needs,” National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1974.
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REGULATORY AND SOCIAL ISSUES

 The code of ethics of all professional engineering societies


require the engineer to protect public health and safety.

Example of Standards and Codes:


ASME: American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials
OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration
CPSC: Consumer Product Safety Commission
EPA: Environmental Protection Agency
DHS: Department of Homeland Security

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COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING (CAE)

 The advent of plentiful computing has produced a major change in the way engineering
design is practiced.

Advantages of Computer-Aided Engineering:

Automated engineering drawing in two dimensions


Three dimensional modeling
Finite Element Modeling (FEM)
Rapid prototyping
Design optimization
Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM)

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DESIGNING TO CODES AND STANDARDS
A code is a collection of laws and rules that assists a government agency in meeting its
obligation to protect the general welfare by preventing damage to property or injury or loss
of life to persons.
A standard is a generally agreed-upon set of procedures, criteria, dimensions, materials, or
parts.

Chief Aspects of Designing To Codes and Standards:


I
n
c • Efficiency
r • Safety
e • Interchangeability
a
s • Compatibility
e

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TWO BROAD FORMS OF CODES

Performance Codes Prescriptive Codes

Performance Codes are stated in terms of the specific requirement that is expected to be
achieved.
Prescriptive(specification) Codes state the requirements in terms of specific details and leave
no discretion to the designer.

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DESIGN REVIEW

A design review is a retrospective study of the design up


to that point in time.

The essence of the technical review of the design is to


compare the findings against the detailed Product
Design Specification (PDS).

The PDS is a detailed document that describes what the design must be in terms of:
 Performance requirements
 Environment in which it must operate
 Product life
 Quality
 Reliability
 Cost
 Host of other design requirements

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REDESIGN

Two categories of redesigns:


Fixes
Updates

A fix is a design modification that is required due to


less than acceptable performance once the
product has been introduced into the marketplace.
Updates are usually planned as part of the product’s
life cycle before the product is introduced to the
market.

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AN EXAMPLES OF DESIGN UPDATE

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SOCIETAL CONSIDERATIONS IN ENGINEERING DESIGN

ABET Code of Ethics:


“Engineers shall hold paramount the safety,
health, and welfare of the public in the
performance of their profession.”
Some influences on the practice of engineering
design due to increased societal awareness of
technology:
Greater influence of lawyers on engineering decisions
More time spent in planning and predicting
Emphasis on “defensive research and development”
More effort expended in research, development, and
engineering in environmental control and safety.
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CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY
RESPONSIBLE DESIGN
Easy to disassemble
Able to be recycled
Contains recycled materials
Uses identifiable and recyclable plastics
Reduces use of energy and natural materials in its manufacture
Manufactured without producing hazardous waste
Avoids use of hazardous materials
Reduces product chemical emissions
Reduces product energy consumption

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KEYS ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN INTERACTING WITH
TECHNOLOGY
As a stimulus to free enterprise through changes in the tax system
By influencing interest rates and the supply of venture capital through changes in fiscal policy
to control the growth of the economy
As a major customer for high technology, chiefly in military, space, andS energy systems
As a funding source (patron) for research and development
As a regulator of technology

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Materials used in this presentation are from :
1. Dieter/Schmidt, Engineering Design 5e. ©2013. The McGraw-Hill Companies
2. K.T. Ulrich and S. D. Eppinger, Product Design and Development. ©2003. The
McGraw-Hill Companies.

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