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# Presentation On Gas Metering

system

M. Osama
Orifice Meter
Introduction
 In gas industry measurement of total quantity of gas
that has been passing through a given section of pipe
over a time period is important factor to be known that
how much gas is being produced and delivered from
 The measurement of a gas volume that is flowing
through pipes is important because if we don’t
perform the volumetric analysis then wrong
estimation could be obtained in shape of loss.
 For example an error of only 1% in measuring of
natural gas while delivering through pipe lines as 300
MMCFD of a gas at the rate of 1\$ per 1000 MCF will
amount the loss of 1 million \$ per year to buyer or
seller.
 Both gas and liquid are measured by various
measurement techniques including orifice meter,
positive displacement meter, turbine meter, rota meter
etc.
 The selection of measurement method to be used
should be made after careful analysis of several factors.
Factors
 Accuracy desired
 Expected useful life of measuring device
 Range of flow, temperature
 Maintenance requirement
 Availability of parts
 Cost of operation
 Initial cost
 Purpose of measurement
Volumetric Measurement
 The simplest method of measuring gas is by
volumetric method. This method determines the
cubical content of a container by applying Boyle’s and
Charles law with deviation factors in order to express
the quantity of gas in container under existing
𝑃𝑉𝑇𝑏
pressure and temperature.𝑄 =
𝑇𝑍𝑃𝑏
 Simple equation for volumetric measurement of gas in
pipeline is derived by C.J. Karibs.
Differential Pressure Method
 Differential pressure method of gas measurement or
you can say gas metering involves the measurement of
a pressure difference by which rate of flow along
certain other data is computed.
 D.P is measured by producing restriction placed in a
pipe(orifice meter) or it may be by the difference
between K.E(velocity) pressure and static pressure as
same of pitot tube.
Differential pressure in Orifice
 D.P flow meters have an orifice plate in the tube.
 Two rods are connected at pipe wall one is before and one
after the orifice plate along D.p sensors, it has two chamber
separated by a diaphram and tiny Pressure difference of
flowing fluid can be measured.
 If fluid is not flowing the pressure before and after is
identical but as soon as fluid starts to flow its velocity
around orifice plate increases because of restriction cross
section and due to laws of fluid mechanics the static
pressure at this flowing point decreases so different values
are detected on pressure chamber sensors.
 A higher pressure before and lower pressure after
orifice plate this D.P is direct measure of flow velocity
thus mass and volume flow in pipe.
 The higher the flow velocity results in drop in pressure
around orifice plate is greater So greater D.P is
detected.
Orifice meter
 Def: “An orifice plate is a device used for measuring
flow rates ,OR, It is a device used for reducing pressure
in a fluid medium”.
 Explanation:
 As we know that orifice is a measuring device of a
flowing mass so it is a most common type of
differential meter used in fuel gas industry.
 The meter consist of a thin plate with circular hole that
is drilled in center of plate, this plate is placed in b\w
the pair of flanges.
 Pressure taps connections are provided means
installed before orifice by a rod placement(upstream)
and after orifice(downstream) to measure P.D .
 The restriction in flow path causes a velocity increase
and pressure drop when orifice is installed.
 Orifice is mounted b\w pair of flanges.
 To avoid errors resulting from disturbance of flow
pattern due to valves,fittings etc Smooth straight pipes
are run as a bunch to make it regular flow know as
straightning vanes.
 Orifice plates are 1/16 and ¼ inch thick.
Construction of Orifice
 Construction of orifice meter is very simple.
1. The meter consist of a thin stainless steel flat plate
with an accurately drilled circular hole which is
2. The plate is placed in b\w pair of flanges or(other
plate holding device) and placed in flow line.
3. Pressure tap connections of measuring P.D taps of
common use are Flange tap and Pipe taps.
 We consider a complete orifice meter composed of two
elements and these are as;
1. D.P components: “The D.P producing device is called as
primary element, this primary element is composed of
following parts;
i. The meter tube: “A length of special pipe through which
the gas flows”
ii. Orifice plate holding & positioning device: “An orifice
flange(connector) or an orifice fitting(clipper) installed
as integral part of meter tube to hold orifice plate in a
position perpendicular to flow of gas and also having a
common center to pass through”.
iii. Orifice plate: “A stainless steel flat circular plate with a
center sharp edged bored hole, it is drilled to an exact pre-
calculated dimensions that cause the calibrated restriction to
flow of gas through meter tube and is a source of P.D”.
iv. Pressure taps: “ it is very carefully located holes through
the pipe walls or orifice plate holder from which gas pressure
on each side of orifice plate is measured.
v. Straightening vanes: “A device or set of pipes inserted
before orifice section of meter tube to reduce irregular flow a
swirling in gas flow”.
2) D.P Detector: “ The secondary element is called as
differential gauge and is a device for measuring
pressure”.
 It is a gauge or set of gauges connected with tubing to
upstream and downstream pressure taps of primary
element, one part records the difference b\w pressure
on each side of orifice and other part records one of
these pressure.
 Recording differential and static pressure gauges using
charts with printed scales are used.
 The flow of natural gas in line is calculated by:
 𝑞 = 𝑐′ ℎ ∗ 𝑝
 Where Q= standard volume per time Mcf-d
 C’= a constant
 H= pressure drop across orifice (inches of water)
 P= static pressure in line (psia)
 C= it is composed of other constants too as type of gas
being measured, orifice/pipe diameter ratio,
temperature, flow rate.
Types of Orifice meter
 Orifice meters are built in different forms depending
upon application, specific requirement, shape , size.
 The two types of orifice meter are *Senior O.M and
*Junior O.M
1. Senior orifice meter: senior orifice meter fitting is
used for changing plates in orifice flanges.
 Changing plates in orifice flanges is time taking and
expensive.
 It is evident that operating personel need a device
which would make the operation of plate changing les
difficult, therefore the first significant type of orifice
fitting us known as senior type having a design
allowing the change or removal of plate under flowing
conditions.
 This senior orifice fitting is a dual chamber bolted to
upper and having a slide valve which closes or open by
gear shaft. Opening allows the carrier of plate to top
chamber.
2. Junior Orifice
 It is used for changing orifice plate when two or more
meter tubes are joined by headers.
 It is much like senior except it does not have slide valve
and a top chamber.
Following steps requires by J.O fiitings to remove orifice
plate from line.
1. Shut in meter tube
2. Depressue tube
3. Loosen set of screws, remove top clamping bar,
4. Turn shaft, elevating orifice plate out of the fitting.
5. Size to be used for J.O is available between 10’’
through 34’’.
General orifice meter equation
 In measurement of most gases and especially natural
gas a universal practice express the low in cubic feet
per hour cuft-hr referred to some base conditions of
temperature and pressure.
 For calculating the quantity of gas AGA(american gas
association) committe report no.3 recommended a
formula.𝑞ℎ =c’ ℎ𝑤 𝑝𝑓
 C’ is obtain by multiplying a basic orifice factor “Fb” by
various correcting factors that are analyzed by
operating conditions, contract requirement and
physical nature of installation.
 C’=(Fb)(Fr)(Y)(Fpb)(Ftb)(Ftf)(Fg)(Fpv)(Fm)(Fl)(F
a) Where:
i. Fb= basic orifice factor cu-ft-hr.
ii. Fr= renolds number factor (viscosity).
iii. Y= expansion factor.
iv. Y1= base on upstream static pressure.
v. Y2= base on downstream static pressure.
vi. Ym= based on a mean of up and down streams static
pressures.
vii. Fpb= pressure base factor (contract).
viii. Ftb= temperature base factor (contract).
ix. Ftf= flowing temperature factor.
x. Fg= specific gravity factor.
xi. Fpv= super-compressibility factor .
xii. Fm= manometer factor.
xiii. Fl= gauge location factor.
xiv. Fa= orifice thermal expansion factor.
i. Basic orifice factor(Fb)= This is dependent on the location of taps,
the ID of the run(meter run) and size of orifice. There is a table from
which we get values of ID for Flange and pipe taps.
ii. Renolds number factor(Fr)= This factor is dependent on the pipe
diameter and viscosity, density and velocity of gas. Renold factor is
obtained by using a table flange and pipe taps.
iii. Expansion factor(Y): Expansion factor is for a gas that while flowing
through an orifice gets changed in velocity and pressure due to
density changes and density is affected by pressure drop and
adiabatic temperature changes. Expansion factor is use to correct
density variation while being use in orifice meter formula.
Expansion factor is function of Differential pressure, absolute
pressure, diameter of pipe and orifice, and type of taps.
iv. Pressure base factor(Fpb): Base pressure factor represents a standard
pressure as a reference atmospheric pressure at sea level, most
location use 14.73psia as standard base pressure, Base pressure is set
according area to area and on contract or tarrif(rates).
i. Temperature base factor(Ftb)= 60◦F is almost universally accepted
and use as base temperature in calculation of gas in orifice meter.
ii. Flowing temp. factor(Ftf)= Flowing temperature factor has two
effects on volume, as if temp is high gas become lighter so flow will
increase and also it causes gas to expand and reduce flow so in
combine both effect cause the gas to vary.
iii. Specific gravity (Fg): Gravity factor is used to correct for changes in
sp-gravity and based on actual flowing sp-gravity of gas determined
by a test, sp- gravity is measured by gravitmeter or by gravity balance
on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis.
iv. Super-compressibility factor(Fpv): This factor corrects the fact that
gases do not follow ideal gas laws, It varies with Temp, Pressure, Sp-
gravity, this factor is obtained by AGA(American Gas Association)
tables, Density under high temp, is greater than theoretical density
so this is termed as super-comressibility.
ix. Manometer factor(Fm): The weight of gas column
over mercury reservoir of orifice meter gauges shows
an error in determining the pressure differential
across orifice so application of manometer
compensates for this error, The correction varies
with ambient pressure, temperature and specific
gravity.
x. Gauge location factor(Fl): This factor is used where
orifice meters are installed at locations other than
45◦ latitude and sea level elevation.
xi. Orifice thermal expansion factor(Fa): This factor is
use to correct the error resulting from expansion or
contraction of orifice operating at temperature that
are different as compare to during installation.