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GMO/ Non-GMO

Chelsea Dizon and


Katie Scurato
Brief Description ● Genetically Modified Organism
○ Living beings that have had their
genetic code changed in some way.
○ Artificially modified in a lab
○ Genetic engineering

● Non-Genetically Modified
Organism
○ No genetic engineering/ modification

Purdue University. “The Story on GMOs.” What Are GMOs?


nongmoproject.org
Examples
● Farmers
○ Increase yield crops that are resistant to
Target Population herbicides and pesticides
○ Produce crops that produces a natural
pesticide
○ Produce crops that can thrive in a specific
environment.

● Physicians
○ Genetically modifying bacteria can produce
medicines that can cure diseases or
vaccines that prevent them. (Ex: insulin for
diabetes)

● Consumers who are:


○ Health conscious
○ On a budget

Purdue University. “The Story on GMOs.” What Are GMOs?


Regulatory Body
● FDA
○ “Has primary responsibility for ensuring the safety of human food and animal feed, as well as
proper labeling and safety of all plant-derived foods and feeds.”

● USDA-APHIS
○ Biotechnology Regulatory Services (BRS)- “regulates the introduction of certain GE
organisms that may pose a risk to plant health.”

● EPA
○ “Regulates pesticides, including plants with plant-incorporated protectants (pesticides
intended to be produced and used in a living plant).”
○ Also regulates pesticide residue on food and animal feed under the Federal Food, Drug,
Cosmetic Act through the FDA.

fda.gov
aphis.usda.gov
epa.gov
Labeling
https://www.nongmoproject.org/find-non-
gmo/verified-products/product-categories/

nongmoproject.org
Verification

nongmoproject.org
Pricing

Goodwin, 2016, The Journal of Agrobiotechnology Management & Economy


Benefits
Non-GMOs:
● No antibiotics or growth hormones
● No chemicals or synthetic components
● Fresher and more natural products

GMOs:
● Increased crop yields with less effort and expense
● Reduced pesticide use
● Increase weather-tolerant crops
● Potential future benefit: feed crops with enhanced nutritional characteristics

Van Eenennaam, Alison L. 2013. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology.


Dizon, Francis, et al. 2015. Journal of Food Science.
Potential Risks of GMOs
● Viral resistance
○ New viruses
○ New diseases

● Allergens
○ “bean plants that were genetically modified to increase cysteine and methionine content were
discarded after the discovery that the expressed protein of the transgene was highly
allergenic”

Bawa, 2012, Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns
Would we
Recommend
Non-GMO?
Yes, BUT
Do Research!
Everything in moderation!

Better choices/ ingredients


Resources
Bawa, A.S., Anilakumar, K.R. (2012). Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns. PubMed Central.

“GMOs in animal agriculture: time to consider both costs and benefits in regulatory evaluations” Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology vol. 4,1 37. 25
Sep. 2013, doi:10.1186/2049-1891-4-37

Dizon, Francis, et al. “Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.” Journal of Food Science, vol. 81, no. 2, 2015, doi:10.1111/1750-3841.13191.

Goodwin, B.K., Marra, M.C., & Piggott, N.E. (2016). The cost of a GMO-free market basket of food in the United States. AgBioForum, The Journal of
Agrobiotechnology Management & Economy 19(1), 25-33.

Office of the Commissioner. “Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act).” U S Food and Drug Administration Home Page, Center for Drug Evaluation
and Research, www.fda.gov/regulatoryinformation/lawsenforcedbyfda/federalfooddrugandcosmeticactfdcact/default.htm.

Purdue University. “The Story on GMOs.” What Are GMOs?, ag.purdue.edu/GMOs/Pages/WhatareGMOs.aspx.

“Regulations.” USDA APHIS | Research Facility Annual Summary Report, www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/biotechnology/SA_Regulations.

“Regulatory Information by Topic: Pesticides.” EPA, Environmental Protection Agency, 21 Aug. 2018, www.epa.gov/regulatory-information-topic/regulatory-
information-topic-pesticides.

University of Utah. “Genetically Modified Foods.” Nutrition & the Epigenome, learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/science/gmfoods/.

Dorf, Robb. “6 Benefits of Natural Foods Including Non-GMO Nutrition Bars.” PureFit Nutrition, PureFit Nutrition, 31 May 2018, purefit.com/blogs/purefit-
nutrition-bars-news/non-gmo-nutrition-bar-benefits.