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BY: Fasil.

Wagnew (Msc)

1 By Fasil.wagnew
POISONS
3.1. Definition
 A poison is any substance solid, liquid or gas that tends to
impair health or cause death when introduced in to the
body or on to the skin surface.
 Small children are especially likely to become poisoned
since they tend to put in their mouths nearly everything
that they pick up.
 However, adults are subject to poisoning also.
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3.1. 1. Types of poisoning

 Some poisons are man-made, such as chemicals and

drugs- and this are found in the home as well as in


industry.

 Almost every household contains substances that are

potentially poisonous, such as bleach and paint stripper,


as well as prescribed or over-the counter Medicines,
which may be dangerous if taken in excessive amounts.
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Cont…
 Other poisons occur in nature fore example, plants

produce poisons that may irritate the skin or cause more


serious symptoms if ingested, and various insects and
creatures produce venom in their bites and stings.

 Contamination of food by bacteria may result in food

poisoning-one of the most common forms of poisoning.

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Frequent causes of poisoning
 Aspirin overdose especially in children.

 Poisons transferred from original containers to other

containers or soft drink bottles.

 Carelessness of the parents in leaving dangerous

substance and medicines within reach of children (lack of


supervision of children).

 Improper storage and disposal of poisonous

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substances.
By Fasil.wagnew
Cont….
 Improper handling of spray equipment including the mixing

of pesticides, insecticides and weed killers.

 Inhalation or swallowing of poisonous substance.

 Carelessness in taking a poison from the medicine cabinet.

 Over doses of drugs taken either accidentally or with suicidal

intent

 Combining some drugs and alcohol

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Examples of poisons around the home
Poisonous substances with in the home environment are extremely
prevalent and it would be difficult to name all of them.

A few typical household poisons are listed below:

 Cosmetics and hair preparations

 Gasoline, kerosene and other petroleum products.

 Paint and turpentine

 Strong detergents

 Bleaches
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Cont……
 Cleaning solutions

 Acids

 Ammonia

 Glue

 Poisonous plants

 Non edible mushrooms

 DDT

 Dry cell

 Malathine etc.
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Ways in which poisoning may occur

1. Through the mouth (by ingestion)

2. Through the skin (by absorption)

3. Through the lung (by inhalation)

4. By injection

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Signs and Symptoms of Poisoning
Symptoms of poisoning vary greatly. Aids in determining
whether or not a victim has swallowed poison include:
1. Information from the victim or from an observer.
2. Presence of a container known to contain poison.
3. Conditions of the victim (sudden onset of pain or
illness).
4. Burns around the lips or mouth.
5. Breathe odor.
6. Pupils of the eyes contracted to pinpoint size from an
over dose of morphine or similar drugs.
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Objectives in treatment of poisoning by mouth

1. To dilute the poisons as quickly as possible.

2. To seek medical advice from a physician or a poison


control center.
3. To maintain respiration or circulation.

4. To preserve vital functions and to seek medical


assistance without delay.

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First aid measures for poisons swallowed
through mouth for a conscious victim
In most cases, the first-aider can try to remove the poison
from his body by inducing vomiting.

Give him a drink of tepid water with soap in it.

Repeat the procedure of inducing vomiting until the


vomiting is clear.

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Cont.…
Do not induce vomiting if the poison is one which burns or
if it is petrol or kerosene.

Instead, give milk with egg whites or a mixture of flour


and water.

Safe the label or container of the suspected poison for


identification.

If the victim vomits safe a sample of the vomited material for


analysis.
By Fasil.wagnew
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For unconscious victim
 Maintain an open airway and administer artificial respiration.

 Don’t give fluids and don’t induce vomiting.

 If the victim is vomiting, position him and turn the head so

that the vomit’s drains out of the mouth.

 Safe the label or container of the suspected poison for

identification.

 If the victim vomits safe a sample of the vomited material for

analysis.
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First aid for victim having convulsion

 Do not attempt to restrain the victim but position him in a

way that he should not injure him self.

 Loosen tight clothes at the victims neck and west

 Watch for an obstruction of air way and attempt to correct by

head positioning, if necessary give artificial respiration.

 Do not give any fluid

 Do not induce vomiting

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Contact poisoning
Contact with Poisonous Chemicals
 Harsh chemicals and corrosive poisons if spilled on the skin

produce chemical burns which require immediate first aid


action.

 First Aid for Contact Poisons chemicals


 Remove the contaminated clothing immediately, drench and flush

the affected skin with large amounts of water or special


neutralizing agents if they are available as you remove the clothes.
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Cont….
 If poisoning is from a pesticide, a corrosive substance

(strong acid or alkali), send for ambulance immediately.

 Continue washing all contaminated skin with soap and water

for at least 15 minutes.

 Keep the victims air way open, give artificial respiration if

indicated

 Do not leave the victim alone.

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Contact with Poisonous Plants

The majority of skin reactions following contact with offending


plants is allergic in nature and is characterized by:
General symptoms of headache and fever

I. Itching
II. Redness
III. Rash

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 First Aid Measures for Poisonous Plants.
 Remove contaminated clothing.

 Wash all exposed areas thoroughly with soap and

water followed by running alcohol.

 Apply calamine or other soothing skin lotion if the

rash is mild.

 Seek medical advice if a severe reaction occurs or if

there is a known history of previous sensitivity.


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Poisoning Through Inhalation (Gas
Poisoning)

 Poisoning Through Inhalation (Gas Poisoning)

 Carbon monoxide poisoning is the most poisonous gas

formed from incomplete burning of fuel, particularly


treacherous because it is completely odorless.

 First Aid Measures

 Move the patient in to fresh air to help get rid of the gas

in his lungs.
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Cont..
 Give mouth-to-mouth respiration and cardiac massage if

necessary.

 Take care that his breath does not contaminate your

breathing, by turning your mouth away from the


victim’s mouth between breath

 Injected poisoning: snake bite


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22 By Fasil.wagnew
BY: Fasil. Wagnew

23 By Fasil.wagnew
5- BURN
Learning Objectives

 The student will be able to identify the different Types of Burns

 The student will be able to first aid measures for Burns

 The student will be able to identify the term Critical Burns

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Burn cont……d
 Burns have been described as:

 First-degree burns (Superficial partial)

 Only the skin’s outer layer

(epidermis) is damaged.
Symptoms include redness, no blister, mild
swelling, tenderness, and pain.
 Usually heals without scarring.

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By Fasil.wagnew
Cont…….d
 What to Do:
 Immerse in cold water 10 to 45 minutes or use
cold, wet cloths.
 Cold stops burn progression
 Ibuprofen, aloe Vera, moisturizer

 Cool water and compresses

 Reduce further damage

 Alleviate pain

 Aid healing process

 No creams until burn has cooled


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1st degree cont….d

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 Second-degree burns (Deep Partial Thickness)

 Epidermis and upper regions of dermis are damaged.

 Symptoms include blisters, swelling or edema,

weeping of fluids, and severe pain.

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By Fasil.wagnew
2nd degree burn cont…..d
 What to Do:

 Immerse in cool water / wet pack

 Aspirin or ibuprofen

 Do not break blisters

 May seek medical attention if it is greater than 20%

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By Fasil.wagnew
Cont….d
 DO NOT DO PRINCIPLE

 Don't use ice. Putting ice directly on a burn can cause a person's

body to become too cold and cause further damage to the wound.

 Don't apply egg whites, butter or ointments to the burn. This

could cause infection.

 Don't break blisters. Broken blisters are more vulnerable to

infection.

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By Fasil.wagnew
Burns Cont….d
 Third-degree burns (Full Thickness)
 Severe burns that penetrate all the skin layers, into the underlying

fat and muscle.

 Symptoms : the burned area appears gray-white,

cherry red, or black;


 there is no initial edema or pain

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By Fasil.wagnew
Cont…..d
 What to Do:

Usually not necessary to apply cold to areas of third

degree
Do not apply ointments

Apply sterile, non-stick dressings (do not use plastic)

Check ABC’s

Treat for shock


Get medical help

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Degree of burn

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Burns Cont.

 Burn injuries can be classified as follow based on causative

agents:

Thermal (heat) burns caused by:


 Flames

 Hot objects

 Steam or hot liquid

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What to Do:
Immerse the burned part immediately cold

Remove anything that is constructive- rings

Cover the burn with a clean preferably sterile

Do not apply lotions ointments oily dressing,

do not break blister.

Do not breathe, cough or touch burned area.

do not remove clothing that is stuck to burned area.

treat for shock, arrange- for immediate transportation


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Burns Cont…..d
Chemical burns
 The result of a caustic or corrosive substance

touching the skin caused by:


 Acids (batteries)

 Alkalis (drain cleaners- often more

extensive)
 Organic compounds (oil products)

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Chemical burn cont….d

37 By Fasil.wagnew
Burns Cont.
 What to Do:

 Remove the chemical by flushing the area

with water
 Brush dry powder chemicals from the skin

before flushing
 Take precautions to protect yourself from

exposure to the chemical

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Cont……d

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Cont…..d

 Remove the victim’s contaminated clothing and

jewelry while flushing with water


 Flush for 20 minutes all chemical burns (skin,

eyes)
 Cover the burned area with a dry, sterile dressing

 Seek medical attention

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Burns Cont.
Electrical Burns
 There are three types of electrical injuries:

 Thermal burn (flame) – Objects in direct contact with


the skin.
 Arc burn (Flash) – Occurs when electricity jumps, or

arcs, from one spot to another.


 Mostly cause extensive superficial injuries.
 True Electrical Injury (contact) – Occurs when an

electric current truly passes through the body.


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Electrical burn cont….d

42 By Fasil.wagnew
Burns Cont.
 What to Do:
 Make sure the scene is safe

 Unplug, disconnect, or turn off the power.

 If that is impossible, call the power company or EMS for


help.
 do not touché the victim until power off
 Check ABCs. (Airway Breathing Circulation)

 If the victim fall, check for a spinal injury.

 Treat the victim for shock by elevating the legs 8” – 12” if no spinal
injury is suspected.
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Cont….d

Radiation Burns:

 No specific first aid treatment for radiation burns from x-ray or

radioactive material

 Cover the burn area with a wet towel, use 5 gram solution of salt

to a liter of water( to soothes and cools the skin)

 Commercial ointments and creams

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Critical Burns
 Potentially Life threatening

 Sensitive areas

 Mouth and nose

 Multiple areas

 Breathing difficulty

 Very old or young victims

 Chemicals, electricity, or explosives

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Prevention of BURN

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