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FACILITATING ADULT LEARNING

Objectives:

Reflect critically on your own practice and facilitate critical reflections in the facilitation of

adult learning.

Make appropriate decisions regarding the facilitation of adult learning based on your

knowledge of issues related to distributed

learning.

Identify factors that affect how adults learn and the environments

that are conducive to learning.

Explore ethical issues in adult education and in facilitating adult learning.

Adult Learners: How to facilitate learnings to

them?

Malcolm Knowles (1990) refers to the theory and practice of adult education as ;

Andragogy an adult-centered, problem posing approach to learning; Pedagogy is child-centered, teacher-directed education

Activity: Adult and Young Learner

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Differences Between Children and

Adult Learners

Children

Adult

Rely on others to decide

Decide for themselves

what is important to be

what is important to be

learned

learned

Accept the information being presented at face value

Need to validate the information based on own beliefs/experiences

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Children

Adult

Expect what they are learning to be useful in their long-term future

Expect what they are learning to be immediately useful

Have little or no experience

Have much past

upon which to draw - clean

experiences to draw from -

slates

may have fixed viewpoints

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Children

Adult

Little ability to serve as a knowledgeable resource to

Significant ability to serve as a knowledgeable

teacher or fellow classmates

resource to trainer and fellow learners

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Principles of Learning

Learning is highly personal
Learning
is highly
personal

Occurs inside the learner and

activated by the learner

Involves discovery of personal meaning and relevance of ideas

No one directly teaches anyone

anything of significance

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Principles of Learning

Learning involves multi- dimensional processes
Learning
involves
multi-
dimensional
processes

Evolutionary more

than revolutionary

Both emotional and

intellectual

Consequence of learner’s experiences

Interdependent more

than independent

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Facilitating Conditions Diversity is valued Okay to make mistakes Ambiguityis tolerated Ideas canbe challenged
Facilitating Conditions
Diversity is
valued
Okay to
make
mistakes
Ambiguityis
tolerated
Ideas canbe
challenged

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Facilitating Conditions Discoveryof personal meaning of ideas is Uniquely facilitated personal and Evaluation subjective nature of
Facilitating Conditions
Discoveryof
personal
meaning of
ideas is
Uniquely
facilitated
personal and
Evaluation
subjective
nature of
learning is
emphasized
by selfand
others is
facilitated

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Facilitating Conditions People feel respectedand accepted Peopleare engaged People are encouraged to trust self and other
Facilitating Conditions
People feel
respectedand
accepted
Peopleare
engaged
People are
encouraged to
trust self and
other resources

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Adult Learning Approach and

Methodology Holistic Experiential Reflective
Methodology
Holistic
Experiential
Reflective

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The Adult Learning Approach and Methodology

HOLISTIC gives equal importance to every aspect of learning, from ability to understand, through his emotions, and finally to how he decides and acts on what he has learned

EXPERIENTIAL makes use of real-life situations and the participants’ experience as point of departure

REFLECTIVE enables him to look at the experience from a distance, identify his reactions to it and determine

alternative courses of action

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Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle

Concrete

Experience

(Doing Something)

14 Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle Concrete Experience (Doing Something) Active Experimentation (ActionPlanning) Abstract Conceptualization (Theorizing) Reflective
14 Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle Concrete Experience (Doing Something) Active Experimentation (ActionPlanning) Abstract Conceptualization (Theorizing) Reflective

Active

Experimentation

(ActionPlanning)

14 Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle Concrete Experience (Doing Something) Active Experimentation (ActionPlanning) Abstract Conceptualization (Theorizing) Reflective

Abstract

Conceptualization

(Theorizing)

Reflective

Observation

(Reflecting)

14 Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle Concrete Experience (Doing Something) Active Experimentation (ActionPlanning) Abstract Conceptualization (Theorizing) Reflective

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Experiential Learning

A process that is characterized by constructed

events that can lead to reflection on the meaning of the experience, and subsequent

personal, group, and/or organizational change

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Key Elements

Involves an experience that is meaningful to the learner, one that can potentially facilitate change in
Involves an experience that is meaningful to the
learner, one that can potentially facilitate change in
knowledge , attitude or skill
16 Key Elements Involves an experience that is meaningful to the learner, one that can potentially
Accompanied by critical thought and reflection about the experience and how it affects previous experience and
Accompanied by critical thought and reflection
about the experience and how it affects previous
experience and learning
16 Key Elements Involves an experience that is meaningful to the learner, one that can potentially
Provides opportunity for learner to decide (consciously or unconsciously) to undertake some kind of action
Provides opportunity for learner to decide
(consciously or unconsciously) to undertake some
kind of action
16 Key Elements Involves an experience that is meaningful to the learner, one that can potentially

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Differences Between Classroom and

Experiential Learning

 

CLASSROOM

EXPERIENTIAL

Learning

Expert: Teachers

Learners, Resource

Resource

Books

Persons, Facilitators

Focus of

Acquiring

Solving problems,

Learning

knowledge

acquiring efficacy

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CLASSROOM

EXPERIENTIAL

 

Teacher-Student

 

Relationship

Superior-Subordinate

Facilitator-Learner

Learner-Resource

Expert-Novice

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CLASSROOM

EXPERIENTIAL

 
  • 1. Teacher/ Expert TELLS or

lectures

1.Facilitator creates

learning situation

or goes through

Process

  • 2. Teacher DRILLS or practices,

where learner ACTS

elaborates

concrete experience

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CLASSROOM

EXPERIENTIAL

   
  • 2. Learner examines results or experiences/gets FEEDBACK

Process

3. Teacher TESTS

  • 3. Learner REFLECTS on

meaning, implicationof feedback

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CLASSROOM

EXPERIENTIAL

Process

4. Teacher EVALUATES

4. Learner makes CONCLUSIONS and decides on appropriate application back home

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Differences Between Teacher and Facilitator

TEACHER

FACILITATOR

Presents information

Guides discussion

Provides the right answers

Provides the right questions

One-way communication

Two-way communication

Gives assignments

Coordinates learning activities

Dictates Objectives

Melds group goals

Teacher-centered

Learner-centered

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The Cycle of Adult or Experiential Learning

By Carmencita T. Abella, 1982

New Activity / Experience
New Activity /
Experience
2 3 The Cycle of Adult or Experiential Learning By Carmencita T. Abella, 1982 New Activity

Step 4. Practical Application

2 3 The Cycle of Adult or Experiential Learning By Carmencita T. Abella, 1982 New Activity

Step 1. Activity or Experience

Step 3. Abstraction or Integration

Step 2. Analysis / Reflective Feedback

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4 As

24 ACTIVITY APPLICATION ABSTRACTION

ACTIVITY

24 ACTIVITY APPLICATION ABSTRACTION

APPLICATION

ANALYSIS

24 ACTIVITY APPLICATION ABSTRACTION
24 ACTIVITY APPLICATION ABSTRACTION

ABSTRACTION

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What are the 4As?

Activity
Activity

Abstraction

Analysis

Application

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Activity

26 • A structured experience May be direct or vicarious • • “What to do” phase

A structured experience May be direct or vicarious

“What to do” phase

To engage the learner

To develop a common base

for the discussion that follows

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Analysis

27 • A reflective feedback • A process of inquiry into the Activity • The “

A reflective feedback

A process of inquiry into the Activity

The whyphase

To look more closely at what happened

Systematic examination Experience sharing Learning from others

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Abstraction

28 • Integration of Activity and Analysis • Theory inputs • The “ so what ”

Integration of Activity and Analysis Theory inputs The so whatphase

To make an inferential leap to life

To derive generalizations

To integrate the various concepts in the learning session

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Application

29 KNOWLEDGE is like paint…it does no good until it is APPLIED • A practical synthesis

KNOWLEDGE is like paint…it does no good until it is APPLIED

A practical synthesis The “now what” phase Apply generalizations to work Transfer insights to real-life concerns Evaluate the effectiveness of the session

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30 The biggest challenge is to be learner- focused

The biggest

challenge is

to be

learner-

focused

People learn best not by being told, but by

experiencing the

consequences of their own

thoughts and actions.

-Training House, New Jersey

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