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Chapter 7

Implementing a
Performance
Management System
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-1
Overview
 Preparation
 Communication Plan
 Appeals Process
 Rater Training Programs
 Pilot Testing
 Ongoing Monitoring and Evaluation
 Online Implementation

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Preparation
 Need to gain system buy-in through:
• Communication plan regarding
performance management system
 Including appeals process

• Training programs for raters


• Pilot testing system

 Ongoing monitoring and evaluation


to show benefits
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Communication Plan Answers:
 What is Performance Management
(PM)?
 How does PM fit into our strategy?
 What’s in it for me?
 How does it work?
 What are our roles and
responsibilities?
 How does PM relate to other
initiatives?
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Cognitive Biases That Affect
Communications Effectiveness
 Selective exposure
 Selective perception
 Selective retention

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To Minimize Effects of Cognitive
Biases:

A. Consider employees
 Involve employees in system design

 Show how employee needs are met

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To Minimize Effects of Cognitive
Biases (Continued):
B. Emphasize the positive
 Use credible communicators

 Strike first—create positive attitude

 Provide facts and consequences

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To Minimize Effects of Cognitive
Biases (Continued):

C. Repeat, document, be consistent


 Put it in writing
 Use multiple channels of communication
 Say it, and then say it again

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Appeals Process
 Promote employee buy-in to PM
system
• Amicable/Nonretaliatory

• Resolution of disagreements

 Increases perception of the


system’s fairness

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Appeals Process
(continued)
 Employees can question two types of
issues:
• Judgmental
 Validity of evaluation

• Administrative
 Whether policies and procedures were
followed

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Recommended Appeals Process
 Level 1
• HR reviews facts, policies, and
procedures
• HR reports to supervisor/employee
• HR attempts to negotiate a settlement
 Level 2
• Arbitrator (panel of peers and
managers) or
• High-level manager—final decision
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Rater Training Programs
 Content Areas to Include:
• Information
• Identifying, observing, recording, and evaluating
• How to interact with employees

 Choices of Training Programs to Implement


• Rater Error Training
• Frame of Reference Training
• Behavioral Observation
• Self-Leadership Training
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Content
A. Information—how the system
works
• Reasons for implementing the
performance management system

• Information
 The appraisal form

 System mechanics

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Content
(continued)

B. Identifying, observing, recording,


and evaluating performance
• How to identify and rank job activities

• How to observe, record, and measure


performance

• How to minimize rating errors

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Content
(continued)

C. How to interact with employees


when they receive performance
information
• How to conduct an appraisal
interview

• How to train, counsel, and coach

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Choices of Training Programs
 Rater Error Training (RET)

 Frame of Reference Training


(FOR)

 Behavioral Observation Training


(BO)
 Self-Leadership Training (SL)

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Rater Error Training (RET)
 Goals of RET
• Make raters aware of types of rating
errors they are likely to make

• Help raters minimize errors

• Increase rating accuracy

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Intentional Rating Errors

 Leniency (inflation)
 Severity (deflation)
 Central tendency

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Unintentional Rating Errors
 Similar to Me  Stereotype
 Halo  Negativity
 Primacy  Recency
 First  Spillover
Impression
 Attribution
 Contrast

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Possible Solutions for
Types of Rating Errors
 Intentional
• Focus on motivation
• Demonstrate benefits of providing
accurate ratings

 Unintentional
• Alert raters to different errors and
their causes
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Frame of Reference Training
(FOR)
 Goal of FOR*
• Raters develop common frame of reference
 Observing performance

 Evaluating performance

 Expected results of FOR


• Raters provide consistent, more accurate ratings
• Raters help employees design effective
development plans

*Most appropriate when PM appraisal system focuses on behaviors

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Behavioral Observation Training (BO)
 Goals of BO
• Minimize unintentional rating errors

• Improve rater skills by focusing on how


raters:
 Observe performance

 Store information about performance

 Recall information about performance

 Use information about performance


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Self-Leadership Training (SL)
 Goals of SL
• Improve rater’s confidence in ability to
manage performance

• Enhance mental processes

• Increase self-efficacy

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Pilot Testing
 Pilot testing is done before the
system is implemented.
• Provides ability to:
 Discover potential problems

 Fix them

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Pilot Testing—Benefits
 Gain information from potential participants

 Learn about difficulties/obstacles

 Collect recommendations on how to improve


system

 Understand personal reactions

 Get early buy-in from some participants

 Get higher rate of acceptance

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Implementing a Pilot Test
 Roll out test version with sample group
• Staff and jobs generalizable to the
organization

 Fully implement planned system


• All participants keep records of issues
encountered
• Do not record appraisal scores
• Collect input from all participants
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Ongoing Monitoring and Evaluation
 When system is implemented, decide:
• How to evaluate system effectiveness
• How to measure implementation
• How to measure results

 Evaluation data to collect:


• Reactions to the system
• Assessments of operational and technical
requirements
• Effectiveness of performance ratings
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Indicators to Consider
 Number of individuals evaluated
 Distribution of performance ratings
 Quality of information
 Quality of follow-up actions
 Quality of performance discussion meetings
 System satisfaction
 Cost-benefit ratio or return on investment (ROI)
 Unit-level and organization-level performance
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Online Implementation
 Online tools to facilitate implementation
• E-mails
• Electronic newsletters
• Web sites
• Appeal filing
• Training programs
• Pop-up reminders

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Online Implementation—Advantages
 Automation
 Speed up processes
 Lower cost
 Gather and disseminate information faster
and more effectively
 System can be linked to other HR functions
 Easier to monitor unit-level and
organizational-level trends over time

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Online Implementation—Limitations
 PM systems that are not implemented
following best practices will not
necessarily improve from the use of
online components.
 In fact, online implementation may create
a more complicated system that is a big
waste of time and resources for all
involved.

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Quick Review
 Preparation
 Communication Plan
 Appeals Process
 Training Programs
 Pilot Testing
 Ongoing Monitoring and Evaluation
 Online Implementation
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-32
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior
written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United
States of America.

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.


publishing as Prentice Hall
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